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Nonprofit/For-Profit Status and Earning Differentials in the Japanese At-home Elderly Care Industry: Evidence from Micro-level Data on Home Helpers and Staff Nurses

  • Haruko Noguchi
  • Satoshi Shimizutani

In April 2000, Japan embarked on a reform of its health care market. Along with the introduction of the long-term care insurance scheme, the government for the first time allowed for-profit operators to compete head-on with non-profit operators in the provision of at-home care services. Taking advantage of a unique and rich micro-level survey, this study is the first to examine wage differentials between the nonprofit and the for-profit sector in Japan's nursing care industry, concentrating on home helpers and staff nurses. Controlling for nonrandom unobserved selection biases, our results show that a nonprofit wage premium exists. This finding supports the hypothesis that nonprofit providers operate under non-distributional constraints.

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Paper provided by Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University in its series Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series with number d04-76.

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Date of creation: Feb 2005
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Handle: RePEc:hst:hstdps:d04-76
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  1. Haruko Noguchi & Satoshi Shimizutani, 2005. "Nonprofit and For-profit Providers in Japan's At-home Care Industry: Evidence on Quality of Service and Household Choice," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d04-73, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  2. Haruko Noguchi & Satoshi Shimizutani, 2005. "Nonprofit/For-Profit Status and Earning Differentials in the Japanese At-home Elderly Care Industry: Evidence from Micro-level Data on Home Helpers and Staff Nurses," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d04-76, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  3. Preston, Anne E, 1989. "The Nonprofit Worker in a For-Profit World," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(4), pages 438-63, October.
  4. Mitchell Olivia S. & PIGGOTT John & SHIMIZUTANI Satoshi, 2004. "Aged-Care Support in Japan: Perspectives and Challenges," ESRI Discussion paper series 118, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
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  6. Preston, Anne E, 1988. "The Effects of Property Rights on Labor Costs of Nonprofit Firms: An Application to the Day Care Industry," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(3), pages 337-50, March.
  7. Newhouse, Joseph P, 1970. "Toward a Theory of Nonprofit Institutions: An Economic Model of a Hospital," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(1), pages 64-74, March.
  8. Cohen, Joel W. & Spector, William D., 1996. "The effect of Medicaid reimbursement on quality of care in nursing homes," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 23-48, February.
  9. Kenneth R. Troske, 1999. "Evidence On The Employer Size-Wage Premium From Worker-Establishment Matched Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(1), pages 15-26, February.
  10. Goddeeris, John H, 1988. "Compensating Differentials and Self-selection: An Application to Lawyers," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(2), pages 411-28, April.
  11. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  12. SHIMIZUTANI Satoshi & SUZUKI Wataru, 2002. "The Quality and Efficiency of At-Home Long-term Care in Japan: Evidence from Micro-level Data," ESRI Discussion paper series 018, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
  13. George J. Borjas & H. E. Frech III & Paul B. Ginsburg, 1983. "Property Rights and Wages: The Case of Nursing Homes," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 18(2), pages 231-246.
  14. Reimers, Cordelia W, 1983. "Labor Market Discrimination against Hispanic and Black Men," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(4), pages 570-79, November.
  15. Greene, William H, 1981. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error: Comment," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(3), pages 795-98, May.
  16. Lee, Lung-Fei, 1978. "Unionism and Wage Rates: A Simultaneous Equations Model with Qualitative and Limited Dependent Variables," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 19(2), pages 415-33, June.
  17. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
  18. Gertler, Paul J., 1989. "Subsidies, quality, and the regulation of nursing homes," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 33-52, February.
  19. Haruko Noguchi & Satoshi Shimizutani & Wataru Suzuki, 2008. "Nonprofit wage premium in the Japanese child care market: evidence from employer-employee matched data," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(14), pages 1089-1092.
  20. A. G. Holtmann & Todd L. Idson, 1993. "Wage Determination of Registered Nurses in Proprietary and Nonprofit Nursing Homes," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(1), pages 55-79.
  21. Leete, Laura, 2001. "Whither the Nonprofit Wage Differential? Estimates from the 1990 Census," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(1), pages 136-70, January.
  22. Susan Rose-Ackerman, 1996. "Altruism, Nonprofits, and Economic Theory," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(2), pages 701-728, June.
  23. Gertler, Paul J, 1992. "Medicaid and the Cost of Improving Access to Nursing Home Care," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(2), pages 338-45, May.
  24. Shimizutani, Satoshi & Suzuki, Wataru, 2007. "Quality and efficiency of home help elderly care in Japan: Evidence from micro-level data," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 287-301, June.
  25. Montgomery, Mark & Cosgrove, James, 1995. "Are Part-Time Women Paid Less? A Model with Firm-Specific Effects," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 33(1), pages 119-33, January.
  26. Idson, Todd L & Feaster, Daniel J, 1990. "A Selectivity Model of Employer-Size Wage Differentials," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages 99-122, January.
  27. Richard G. Frank & David S. Salkever, 1994. "Nonprofit Organizations in the Health Sector," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(4), pages 129-144, Fall.
  28. Darius Lakdawalla & Tomas Philipson, 1998. "Nonprofit Production and Competition," NBER Working Papers 6377, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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