IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/hhs/uunewp/2017_006.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Having It All? Employment, Earnings and Children

Author

Listed:
  • Laun, Tobias

    () (Department of Economics)

  • Wallenius, Johanna

    () (Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics)

Abstract

Sweden boasts high fertility and high female employment. However, part-time employment is very prevalent. There is a notable gender gap in both wages and earnings, which widens substantially after women have children. In this paper we study the effect of family policies on female employment, fertility and the gender wage gap. To this end, we develop a structural, life cycle model of heterogeneous households which features endogenous labor supply, human capital accumulation, fertility and home production. We find that family policies, such as subsidized daycare and part-time work options, promote maternal employment and fertility. Part-time work contributes greatly to the widening of the gender wage gap following the arrival of children. However, restricting part-time work options would lower maternal employment, and thereby also widen the gender wage gap.

Suggested Citation

  • Laun, Tobias & Wallenius, Johanna, 2017. "Having It All? Employment, Earnings and Children," Working Paper Series 2017:6, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:uunewp:2017_006
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1091014/FULLTEXT01.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Richard Blundell & Monica Costa Dias & Costas Meghir & Jonathan Shaw, 2016. "Female Labor Supply, Human Capital, and Welfare Reform," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 84, pages 1705-1753, September.
    2. Bahar Baziki, Selva & Ginja, Rita & Borota Milicevic, Teodora, 2015. "Trade Competition, Technology and Labor Re-allocation," Working Paper Series, Center for Labor Studies 2016:1, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
    3. Alexander Bick, 2016. "The Quantitative Role Of Child Care For Female Labor Force Participation And Fertility," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 14(3), pages 639-668, June.
    4. Erdal Tekin, 2007. "Childcare Subsidies, Wages, and Employment of Single Mothers," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(2).
    5. Nikolay Angelov & Per Johansson & Erica Lindahl, 2016. "Parenthood and the Gender Gap in Pay," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34(3), pages 545-579.
    6. Erosa, Andres & Fuster, Luisa & Restuccia, Diego, 2016. "A quantitative theory of the gender gap in wages," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 165-187.
    7. repec:cup:jdemec:v:81:y:2015:i:01:p:75-114_00 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Christian Siegel, 2017. "Female Relative Wages, Household Specialization and Fertility," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 24, pages 152-174, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Paule-Paludkiewicz, Hannah, 2020. "Does the Right to Work Part-Time Affect Mothers' Labor Market Outcomes?," VfS Annual Conference 2020 (Virtual Conference): Gender Economics 224556, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Keller, Elisa, 2019. "Labor supply and gender differences in occupational choice," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 221-241.
    2. Inés Berniell & Lucila Berniell & Dolores de la Mata & María Edo & Yarine Fawaz & Matilde P. Machado & Mariana Marchionni, 2020. "Motherhood, Labor Market Trajectories, and the Allocation of Talent: Harmonized Evidence on 29 Countries," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0270, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
    3. Kabátek, Jan, 2015. "Essays on public policy and household decision making," Other publications TiSEM 8cdb178e-ad98-42e5-a7e1-b, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    4. Hassani Nezhad, Lena, 2020. "Female Employment and Childcare," IZA Discussion Papers 13839, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    5. Guner, Nezih & Kaygusuz, Remzi & Ventura, Gustavo, 2013. "Childcare Subsidies and Household Labor Supply," CEPR Discussion Papers 9775, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Patricia Gallego Granados & Katharina Wrohlich, 2019. "Selection into Employment and the Gender Wage Gap across the Distribution and over Time," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1838, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    7. Müller, Kai-Uwe & Wrohlich, Katharina & Sengül, Denise, 2016. "Does subsidized care for toddlers increase maternal labor supply? Evidence from a large-scale expansion of early childcare," VfS Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145654, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    8. David Koll & Dominik Sachs & Fabian Stuermer-Heiber & Helene Turon, 2019. "The fiscal return to childcare policies," 2019 Meeting Papers 1081, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    9. Henk-Wim de Boer & Egbert Jongen & Jan Kabatek, 2014. "The effectiveness of fiscal stimuli for working parents," CPB Discussion Paper 286.rdf, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    10. Johanna Wallenius & Tobias Laun, 2016. "Home and Market Hours, Human Capital Accumulation and Fertility," 2016 Meeting Papers 518, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    11. Henk-Wim de Boer & Egbert Jongen & Jan Kabatek, 2014. "The effectiveness of fiscal stimuli for working parents," CPB Discussion Paper 286, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    12. Spencer Bastani & Tomer Blumkin & Luca Micheletto, 2016. "Anti-discrimination Legislation and the Efficiency-Enhancing Role of Mandatory Parental Leave," Working Papers 088, "Carlo F. Dondena" Centre for Research on Social Dynamics (DONDENA), Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi.
    13. Naomi Gershoni & Corinne Low, 2020. "The Power of Time: The Impact of Free IVF on Women’s Human Capital Investments," Working Papers 2011, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Economics.
    14. Haibin Jiang, 2020. "The Effects of the Child Care Tax Credit on Maternal Labor Supply," Working Papers 2015, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
    15. Alexander Bick & Nicola Fuchs-Schündeln, 2018. "Taxation and Labour Supply of Married Couples across Countries: A Macroeconomic Analysis," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 85(3), pages 1543-1576.
    16. Charles Hokayem & James P. Ziliak, 2014. "Health, Human Capital, and Life Cycle Labor Supply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(5), pages 127-131, May.
    17. Albertini, Julien & Terriau, Anthony, 2019. "Informality over the life-cycle," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 182-202.
    18. Sebastien Buttet & Alice Schoonbroodt, 2013. "An accounting exercise for the shift in life-cycle employment profiles of married women born between 1940 and 1960 [Eine Bilanzierung der Verschiebungen der Lebensverlauf-Beschäftigungsprofile von ," Journal for Labour Market Research, Springer;Institute for Employment Research/ Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), vol. 46(3), pages 253-271, September.
    19. Sandra E. Black & Paul J. Devereux & Katrine V. L�ken & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2014. "Care or Cash? The Effect of Child Care Subsidies on Student Performance," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 96(5), pages 824-837, December.
    20. Rong Hai & James Heckman, 2017. "Inequality in Human Capital and Endogenous Credit Constraints," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 25, pages 4-36, April.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Life cycle; Labor supply; Human capital; Fertility; Home production;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:uunewp:2017_006. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ulrika Öjdeby). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nekuuse.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.