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Estimating Gender Differences in Access to Jobs

Author

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  • Laurent Gobillon

    (INED - Institut national d'études démographiques, PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR)

  • Dominique Meurs

    (INED - Institut national d'études démographiques, EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Sébastien Roux

    (CREST - Centre de Recherche en Économie et Statistique - ENSAI - Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz] - X - École polytechnique - ENSAE Paris - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, DARES - Direction de l'animation de la recherche, des études et des statistiques - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé)

Abstract

This paper proposes a new measure of gender differences in access to jobs based on a job assignment model. This measure is the probability ratio of getting a job for a female and a male at each rank of the wage ladder. We derive a nonparametric estimator of this access measure and estimate it for French full-time executives aged 40–45 in the private sector. Our results show that the gender difference in the probability of getting a job increases along the wage ladder from 9% to 50%. Females thus have a significantly lower access to high-paid jobs than to low-paid jobs.

Suggested Citation

  • Laurent Gobillon & Dominique Meurs & Sébastien Roux, 2015. "Estimating Gender Differences in Access to Jobs," PSE-Ecole d'économie de Paris (Postprint) halshs-01206083, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:pseptp:halshs-01206083
    DOI: 10.1086/678495
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01206083
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    Cited by:

    1. Clément Bosquet & Pierre‐Philippe Combes & Cecilia García‐Peñalosa, 2019. "Gender and Promotions: Evidence from Academic Economists in France," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 121(3), pages 1020-1053, July.
    2. Anthony B. Atkinson & Alessandra Casarico & Sarah Voitchovsky, 2018. "Top incomes and the gender divide," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 16(2), pages 225-256, June.
    3. Elise Coudin & Sophie Maillard & Maxime Tô, 2018. "Family, Firms and the Gender Wage Gap in France," Working Papers 2018-09, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
    4. Laurent Gobillon & Dominique Meurs & Sébastien Roux, 2017. "Differences in positions along a hierarchy: Counterfactuals based on an assignment," Working Papers halshs-01513012, HAL.
    5. Pierre PORA & Lionel WILNER, 2019. "Child Penalties and Financial Incentives: Exploiting Variation along the Wage distribution," Working Papers 2019-17, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
    6. Lamia E. Kandil, 2015. "Disentangling qualitative and quantitative central bank influence," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2015-02, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
    7. Laurent Gobillon & Dominique Meurs & Sébastien Roux, 2022. "Differences in Positions along a Hierarchy: Counterfactuals Based on an Assignment Model," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 145, pages 29-74.
    8. Collischon Matthias, 2019. "Is There a Glass Ceiling over Germany?," German Economic Review, De Gruyter, vol. 20(4), pages 329-359, December.
    9. Strittmatter, Anthony & Wunsch, Conny, 2021. "The Gender Pay Gap Revisited with Big Data: Do Methodological Choices Matter?," Working papers 2021/05, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
    10. Clément Bosquet & Pierre‐Philippe Combes & Cecilia García‐Peñalosa, 2019. "Gender and Promotions: Evidence from Academic Economists in France," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 121(3), pages 1020-1053, July.
    11. Alfano Vincenzo & Cicatiello Lorenzo & Gaeta Giuseppe Lucio & Pinto Mauro, 2021. "The Gender Wage Gap among Ph.D. Holders: Evidence from Italy," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 21(3), pages 1107-1148, July.
    12. Yannick L’Horty & Dominique Meurs, 2016. "Introduction. Analyser les inégalités salariales entre les hommes et les femmes dans la fonction publique avec les données du Système d’information sur les agents des services publics," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 488(1), pages 89-95.
    13. Bertrand Garbinti & Jonathan Goupille-Lebret, 2019. "Income and Wealth Inequality in France: Developments and Links over the Long Term," Economie et Statistique / Economics and Statistics, Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE), issue 510-511-5, pages 69-87.
    14. Field, Laura Casares & Souther, Matthew E. & Yore, Adam S., 2020. "At the table but can not break through the glass ceiling:Board leadership positions elude diverse directors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 137(3), pages 787-814.
    15. Fathi Fakhfakh & Annick Vignes & Jihan Ghrairi, 2015. "Youth ! ... How did you find your job ?," Working Papers hal-01253907, HAL.
    16. Bredemeier, Christian, 2019. "Gender Gaps in Pay and Inter-Firm Mobility," IZA Discussion Papers 12785, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    17. Clément Bosquet & Pierre‐Philippe Combes & Cecilia García‐Peñalosa, 2019. "Gender and Promotions: Evidence from Academic Economists in France," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 121(3), pages 1020-1053, July.
    18. Lamia Kandil, 2015. "Glass ceiling and belief flipping : theory and evidence from Egypt," Sciences Po publications 2015-02, Sciences Po.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Job; gender difference;

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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