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Intermediary balance sheets

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Abstract

We document the cyclical properties of the balance sheets of different types of intermediaries. While the leverage of the bank sector is highly procyclical, the leverage of the nonbank financial sector is acyclical. We propose a theory of a two-agent financial intermediary sector within a dynamic model of the macroeconomy. Banks are financed by issuing risky debt to households and face risk-based capital constraints, which leads to procyclical leverage. Households can also participate in financial markets by investing in a nonbank “fund” sector where fund managers face skin-in-the-game constraints, leading to acyclical leverage in equilibrium. The model also reproduces the empirical feature that the banking sector’s leverage growth leads the financial sector’s asset growth, while leverage in the fund sector does not precede growth in financial-sector assets. The procyclicality of the banking sector is due to its risk-based funding constraints, which give a central role to the time variation of endogenous uncertainty.

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  • Adrian, Tobias & Boyarchenko, Nina, 2013. "Intermediary balance sheets," Staff Reports 651, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:651
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1997. "Financial Intermediation, Loanable Funds, and The Real Sector," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(3), pages 663-691.
    2. Tobias Adrian & Hyun Song Shin, 2014. "Procyclical Leverage and Value-at-Risk," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(2), pages 373-403.
    3. Jon Danielsson & Hyun Song Shin & Jean-Pierre Zigrand, 2011. "Balance Sheet Capacity and Endogenous Risk," FMG Discussion Papers dp665, Financial Markets Group.
    4. Leland, Hayne E & Toft, Klaus Bjerre, 1996. " Optimal Capital Structure, Endogenous Bankruptcy, and the Term Structure of Credit Spreads," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(3), pages 987-1019, July.
    5. Tobias Adrian & Paolo Colla & Hyun Song Shin, 2011. "Which Financial Frictions? Parsing the Evidence from the Financial Crisis of 2007-09," Working Papers 1396, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Econometric Research Program..
    6. Adrian, Tobias & Boyarchenko, Nina, 2012. "Intermediary leverage cycles and financial stability," Staff Reports 567, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, revised 01 Feb 2015.
    7. Adrian, Tobias & Shin, Hyun Song, 2010. "Liquidity and leverage," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 418-437, July.
    8. Kareken, John H & Wallace, Neil, 1978. "Deposit Insurance and Bank Regulation: A Partial-Equilibrium Exposition," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(3), pages 413-438, July.
    9. Cox, John C. & Huang, Chi-fu, 1989. "Optimal consumption and portfolio policies when asset prices follow a diffusion process," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 33-83, October.
    10. Zhiguo He & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2013. "Intermediary Asset Pricing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(2), pages 732-770, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Adrian, Tobias & Boyarchenko, Nina, 2014. "Liquidity policies and systemic risk," Staff Reports 661, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    2. Silvia Bressan, 0. "A Short Note on the Funding of Investment Firms Across the Crisis: Did the Turmoil Bring Changes?," Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 0, pages 3.
    3. Aymanns, Christoph & Caccioli, Fabio & Farmer, J. Doyne & Tan, Vincent W.C., 2015. "Taming the Basel leverage cycle," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 65089, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    4. Lopez-Salido, J. David & Stein, Jeremy C. & Zakrajsek, Egon, 2015. "Credit-Market Sentiment and the Business Cycle," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2015-28, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), revised 30 Dec 2016.
    5. Gersbach, Hans & Rochet, Jean-Charles & Scheffel, Martin, 2015. "Financial Intermediation, Capital Accumulation, and Recovery," CEPR Discussion Papers 10964, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Christoph Aymanns & Fabio Caccioli & J. Doyne Farmer & Vincent W. C. Tan, 2015. "Taming the Basel Leverage Cycle," Papers 1507.04136, arXiv.org.
    7. repec:eee:macchp:v2-1497 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Kok, Christoffer & Darracq Pariès, Matthieu & Hałaj, Grzegorz, 2016. "Bank capital structure and the credit channel of central bank asset purchases," Working Paper Series 1916, European Central Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    procyclical leverage; endogenous uncertainty; heterogeneous agents;

    JEL classification:

    • E02 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General - - - Institutions and the Macroeconomy
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • G00 - Financial Economics - - General - - - General
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

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