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European monetary arrangements: implications for the dollar, exchange rate variability and credibility

  • Hali J. Edison
  • Linda S. Kole

This paper uses the recent history of the ERM to gain insights into what might happen to exchange rates on the road to EMU. To do this, the paper examines the variability of exchange rates, the transmission of monetary policy between countries, the role of the dollar in ERM exchange rate crises, and ERM members' credibility as measured by the realignment probabilities prior to the September 1992 crisis. We find that behavior of exchange rates has changed over time and differs between ERM and non-ERM currencies. We identify two factors that might have contributed to the September 1992 crisis: high German interest rates and weakness of the U.S. dollar.

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Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series International Finance Discussion Papers with number 468.

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Date of creation: 1994
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgif:468
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  1. Giuseppe Bertola & Lars E. O. Svensson, 1993. "Stochastic Devaluation Risk and the Empirical Fit of Target-Zone Models," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(3), pages 689-712.
  2. Francis X. Diebold & Steven Husted & Mark Rush, 1990. "Real exchange rates under the gold standard," Discussion Paper / Institute for Empirical Macroeconomics 32, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  3. Kremers, Jeroen J M & Ericsson, Neil R & Dolado, Juan J, 1992. "The Power of Cointegration Tests," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 325-48, August.
  4. Chen, Zhaohui & Giovannini, Alberto, 1993. "The Determinants of Realignment Expectations Under the EMS - Some Empirical Regularities," CEPR Discussion Papers 790, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Mizrach, Bruce, 1995. "Target zone models with stochastic realignments: an econometric evaluation," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 641-657, October.
  6. Lindberg, Hans & Soderlind, Paul & Svensson, Lars E O, 1993. "Devaluation Expectations: The Swedish Krona 1985-92," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(420), pages 1170-79, September.
  7. Lars E.O. Svensson, 1990. "The Foreign Exchange Risk Premium in a Target Zone with Devaluation Risk," NBER Working Papers 3466, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Giavazzi, Francesco & Pagano, Marco, 1988. "The advantage of tying one's hands : EMS discipline and Central Bank credibility," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 1055-1075, June.
  9. Frankel, Jeff & Phillips, Steve & Chinn, Menzie, 1992. "Financial and Currency Integration in the European Monetary System: The Statistical Record," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233177, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
  10. Giavazzi, Francesco & Spaventa, Luigi, 1990. "The `New' EMS," CEPR Discussion Papers 369, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  11. Zhaohui Chen & Alberto Giovannini, 1993. "The Determinants of Realignment Expectations Under the EMS: Some Empirical Regularities," NBER Working Papers 4291, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Edison, Hali J. & Gagnon, Joseph E. & Melick, William R., 1997. "Understanding the empirical literature on purchasing power parity: the post-Bretton Woods era," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 1-17, February.
  13. W. R. M. Perraudin & E. H. Gardner, 1992. "Asymmetry in the ERM; A Case Study of French and German Interest Rates Since Basle-Nyborg," IMF Working Papers 92/96, International Monetary Fund.
  14. Andrew K. Rose & Lars E. O. Svensson, 1991. "Expected and predicted realignments: the FF/DM exchange rate during the EMS," International Finance Discussion Papers 395, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  15. Edison, Hali J. & Fisher, Eric O'N, 1991. "A long-run view of the European monetary system," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 53-70, March.
  16. Hagen, Jurgen von & Fratianni, Michele, 1990. "German dominance in the EMS: evidence from interest rates," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 358-375, December.
  17. Fred G M C Nieuwland & Willem F C Verschoor & Christian C P Wolff, 1990. "EMS Exchange Rates," CEPR Financial Markets Paper 0002, European Science Foundation Network in Financial Markets, c/o C.E.P.R, 77 Bastwick Street, London EC1V 3PZ..
  18. Katsimbris, George M & Miller, Stephen M, 1993. "Interest Rate Linkages within the European Monetary System: Further Analysis," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 25(4), pages 771-79, November.
  19. von Hagen, Jurgen & Neumann, Manfred J M, 1994. "Real Exchange Rates within and between Currency Areas: How Far Away Is EMU?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(2), pages 236-44, May.
  20. Michael J. Artis & Mark P. Taylor, 1993. "The Stabilizing Effect of the ERMon Exchange Rates and Interest Rates; An Empirical Investigation," IMF Working Papers 93/67, International Monetary Fund.
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