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Desigualdad salarial en Colombia 1984-2005: cambios en la composición del mercado laboral y retornos a la educación post-secundaria

  • Christian Manuel Posso Suárez

    ()

En el periodo 1984-2005 se registró un incremento substancial en la desigualdad salarial enespecial a partir de 1995, momento en el cual también se dio un crecimiento significativode la población asalariada con educación post-secundaria. A su vez esta desigualdad fuemás importante dentro del grupo de los más educados. Este documento expone nuevasalternativas para el análisis de la desigualdad salarial en Colombia. Primero, se utiliza unmétodo de descomposición para la desigualdad basado en una estimación condicional de ladistribución de ingresos utilizando la regresión por percentiles; este método descomponelos cambios en la distribución en tres factores: características, coeficientes y residuales.Los resultados muestran que el crecimiento de la desigualdad depende principalmente delos cambios en la distribución de las características de los asalariados para el periodo 1984-2005, resultado contrario a lo planteado por algunos trabajos previos donde se muestra queel crecimiento de la desigualdad depende fundamentalmente de los residuales. La técnicaaquí presentada corrige algunas de las deficiencias del método original de descomposiciónde Juhn, Murphy y Pierce (JMP, 1993). Segundo, utilizando la regresión por percentiles seintenta mostrar que los premios a la educación post-secundaria tienen un rol principal en laexplicación del crecimiento de la desigualdad dentro del grupo de los más educados,particularmente por una caída en el premio en la parte baja de la distribución (50/10) para elperiodo 1995-2005, el cual puede estar asociado a un problema de calidad de la educación.

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Paper provided by BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA in its series BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA with number 005003.

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Length: 31
Date of creation: 01 Sep 2008
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Handle: RePEc:col:000094:005003
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  11. Daron Acemoglu, 2002. "Technical Change, Inequality, and the Labor Market," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(1), pages 7-72, March.
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  13. Maarten Goos & Alan Manning, 2003. "Lousy and Lovely Jobs: the Rising Polarization of Work in Britain," CEP Discussion Papers dp0604, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
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