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Are Underground Workers More Likely To Be Underground Consumers?

Author

Listed:
  • Bernard Fortin
  • Guy Lacroix
  • Claude Montmarquette

Abstract

This paper investigates the effect of working in the underground sector on the level of individual underground expenditures. We show that it can be decomposed into a network effect, a non-separability effect and an income effect. Our empirical analysis uses micro data from a randomized survey conducted in the province of Québec for 1993. GMM methods allow us to take into account censoring and measurement error on the dependent variable as well as the possible endogeneity of the conditioning labor supply variables. We find that an increase in the underground labor supply has a strong positive effect on the level of underground expenditures. This relationship amplifies the impact of tax policy and of the enforcement system on the size of the underground economy. Cet article étudie les effets du travail au noir sur le niveau des achats au noir des individus. On montre qu'il peut se décomposer en un effet de réseau, un effet de non-séparabilité et un effet revenu. Notre analyse empirique utilise des micro-données tirées d'une enquête réalisée au Québec pour l'année 1993. La méthode des moments généralisés nous permet de tenir compte de la censure et des erreurs de mesure sur la variable dépendante ainsi que de l'endogénéité des variables d'offre de travail qui conditionnent les décisions de consommation. Selon nos résultats, une hausse de l'offre de travail au noir accroît de façon importante le niveau des dépenses au noir. Cet effet amplifie l'impact des politiques de taxation et de contrôle fiscal sur la taille de l'économie souterraine.

Suggested Citation

  • Bernard Fortin & Guy Lacroix & Claude Montmarquette, 1997. "Are Underground Workers More Likely To Be Underground Consumers?," CIRANO Working Papers 97s-28, CIRANO.
  • Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:97s-28
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Bruno Chiarini & Elisabetta Marzano, 2006. "Market consumption and hidden consumption. A test for substitutability," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(6), pages 707-716.
    2. François Gardes & Christophe Starzec, 2009. "Polish Households' Behavior in the Regular and Informal Economies," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 60(5), pages 1181-1210.
    3. Soldatos, Gerasimos, 2014. "Indirect Tax Incidence under Inelastic Underground Economy Demand," MPRA Paper 64598, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Tilman Bruck & John P. Haisken-De New & Klaus Zimmermann, 2006. "Creating low skilled jobs by subsidizing market-contracted household work," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(8), pages 899-911.
    5. Jan Hanousek & Filip Palda, 2002. "The Evolution of Tax Evasion in the Czech Republic: A Markov Chain Analysis," Public Economics 0205002, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Böhme, Marcus & Thiele, Rainer, 2012. "Is the Informal Sector Constrained from the Demand Side? Evidence for Six West African Capitals," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(7), pages 1369-1381.
    7. Amedeo Piolatto, 2015. "Itemised Deductions: A Device to Reduce Tax Evasion," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 16(4), pages 422-438, November.
    8. repec:tiu:tiucen:201060 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Arbex, Marcelo, 2013. "Tax enforcement policies, tax evasion and time allocation," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 285-293.
    10. Casola, Luca & Kemp, Simon & Mackenzie, Alexander, 2009. "Consumer decisions in the black market for stolen or counterfeit goods," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 162-171, April.
    11. Marcus H Böhme & Rainer Thiele, 2014. "Informal–Formal Linkages and Informal Enterprise Performance in Urban West Africa," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 26(4), pages 473-489, September.
    12. Philippe Adair, 2012. "The Non-Observed Economy in the European Union Countries (EU-15): A Comparative Analysis of Estimates," Chapters,in: Tax Evasion and the Shadow Economy, chapter 5 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    13. Philippe Adair, 2009. "Économie non observée et emploi informel dans les pays de l'Union européenne. Une comparaison des estimations et des déterminants," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 60(5), pages 1117-1153.
    14. Benoit Dostie & Désiré Vencatachellum, 2004. "Compulsory and Voluntary Remittances: Evidence from Child Domestic Workers in Tunisia," Cahiers de recherche 04-04, HEC Montréal, Institut d'économie appliquée.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Underground consumption; underground work; separability; policy impacts; GMM estimations; Consommation au noir; travail au noir; séparabilité; impact des politiques; estimations par la méthode des moments généralisés;

    JEL classification:

    • C34 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models
    • H26 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Tax Evasion and Avoidance
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply

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