Économie non observée et emploi informel dans les pays de l'Union européenne. Une comparaison des estimations et des déterminants
The Non-Observed Economy (noe) is a convenient typology covering the whole spectrum of unrecorded household and market output (moonlighting, fraud on taxes and social security contributions, criminal activities). Macroeconomic estimates of such activities in terms of gdp proceed from various methods, which are more or less biased and do not match. Direct approaches are based on tax audits and informal employment surveys. Indirect measurements are issued from discrepancies on the commodity market (Income and Expenditure from National Accounts), on the money market (currency demand, transactions) and on the labour market (implicit labour supply), as well as from dynamic multi-variables modelling. According to estimates, the size of noe varies across European Union countries – Mediterranean area being prominent, although no North-South divide shows up –, as well as over time: According to time series, it increased throughout the 1990s, although displaying fluctuating trends. Analysis is tackled through tax evasion models and segmented labour markets. Comparative studies suggest that determinants do not result so much from tax load or tax burden, but relate to the costs of regulation, as regards labour and the operation of (small) firms. Classification JEL : H0, K4, O2
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Fortin, Bernard & Lacroix, Guy & Montmarquette, Claude, 2000.
"Are Underground Workers More Likely to be Underground Consumers?,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(466), pages 838-860, October.
- Bernard Fortin & Guy Lacroix & Claude Montmarquette, 1997. "Are Underground Workers More Likely To Be Underground Consumers?," CIRANO Working Papers 97s-28, CIRANO.
- Fortin, Bernard & Lacroix, Guy & Montmarquette, Claude, 1997. "Are Underground Workers More Likely to be Underground Consumers?," Cahiers de recherche 9710, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
- Feinstein, Jonathan S, 1999. "Approaches for Estimating Noncompliance: Examples from Federal Taxation in the United States," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages 360-369, June.
- Friedman, Eric & Johnson, Simon & Kaufmann, Daniel & Zoido-Lobaton, Pablo, 2000. "Dodging the grabbing hand: the determinants of unofficial activity in 69 countries," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 459-493, June.
- Tanzi, Vito, 1999. "Uses and Abuses of Estimates of the Underground Economy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages 338-347, June.
- Frank A. Cowell, 1990. "Cheating the Government: The Economics of Evasion," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262532484.
- Frey, Bruno S. & Weck-Hanneman, Hannelore, 1984. "The hidden economy as an 'unobserved' variable," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(1-2), pages 33-53.
- Feige, Edgar L., 1997. "Revised estimates of the Underground Economy: Implications of US Currency held abroad," MPRA Paper 13805, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Dominik H. Enste & Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "Shadow Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(1), pages 77-114, March.
- Philip Cagan, 1958.
"The Demand for Currency Relative to Total Money Supply,"
in: The Demand for Currency Relative to Total Money Supply, pages 1-37
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Philip Cagan, 1958. "The Demand for Currency Relative to Total Money Supply," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number caga58-1, Enero.
- Edgar L. Feige, 2004. "How Big IS the Irregular Economy?," Macroeconomics 0404005, EconWPA.
- Dan Anderberg & Alessandro Balestrino & Umberto Galmarini, 2003. "Search and Taxation in a Model of Underground Economic Activities," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 41(4), pages 647-659, October.
- Christopher Bajada & Friedrich Schneider, 2009. "Unemployment and the Shadow Economy in the oecd," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 60(5), pages 1033-1067.
- Thomas, Jim, 1999. "Quantifying the Black Economy: 'Measurement without Theory' Yet Again?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages 381-389, June.
- Giles, David E A, 1999.
"Measuring the Hidden Economy: Implications for Econometric Modelling,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages 370-380, June.
- David E. A. Giles, 1998. "Measuring The Hidden Economy: Implications for Econometric Modelling," Econometrics Working Papers 9809, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
- Edgar L. Feige & Robert T. McGee, 2005. "Policy Illusion, Macroeconomic Instability And The Unrecorded Economy," Macroeconomics 0501027, EconWPA.
- Helberger, Christof & Knepel, Helmut, 1988. "How big is the shadow economy? : A re-analysis of the unobserved-variable approach of B.S. Frey and H. Weck-Hannemann," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 965-976, April.
- Panayiota Lyssiotou & Panos Pashardes & Thanasis Stengos, 2004. "Estimates of the black economy based on consumer demand approaches," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(497), pages 622-640, 07.
- Pissarides, Christopher A. & Weber, Guglielmo, 1989. "An expenditure-based estimate of Britain's black economy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 17-32, June.
- Andrew Dilnot & C. N. Miller, 1981. "What do we know about the black economy?," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 2(1), pages 58-73, March.
- Johnson, Simon & Kaufmann, Daniel & Zoido-Lobatón, Pablo, 1998. "Corruption, public finances and the unofficial economy," Sede de la CEPAL en Santiago (Estudios e Investigaciones) 34372, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
- Cebula, Richard, 1996. "An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Government Tax and Auditing Policies on the Size of the Underground Economy: The Case of the United States, 1973-94," MPRA Paper 49810, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Phillip Cagan, 1958. "The Demand for Currency Relative to the Total Money Supply," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 303-303.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cai:recosp:reco_605_1117. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jean-Baptiste de Vathaire)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.