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Sanctions and Export Deflection: Evidence from Iran


  • Jamal Ibrahim Haider

    (Center for International Development at Harvard University)


Do export sanctions cause export deflection? Data on Iranian non-oil exporters between January 2006 and June 2011 shows that two-thirds of these exports were deflected to non-sanctioning countries after sanctions were imposed in 2008, and that at this time aggregate exports actually increased. Exporting firms reduced prices and increased quantities when exporting to a new destination, however, and suffered welfare losses as a result.

Suggested Citation

  • Jamal Ibrahim Haider, 2017. "Sanctions and Export Deflection: Evidence from Iran," CID Working Papers 80, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
  • Handle: RePEc:cid:wpfacu:80

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    Cited by:

    1. Draca, Mirko & Garred, Jason & Stickland, Leanne & Warrinnier, Nele, 2018. "On Target? The Incidence of Sanctions Across Listed Firms in Iran," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 372, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
    2. Matthieu Crozet & Julian Hinz, 0. "Friendly fire: the trade impact of the Russia sanctions and counter-sanctions," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 35(101), pages 97-146.
    3. Tibor Besedeš & Stefan Goldbach & Volker Nitsch, 2017. "You’re banned! The effect of sanctions on German cross-border financial flows," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 32(90), pages 263-318.
    4. Felbermayr, Gabriel & Kirilakha, Aleksandra & Syropoulos, Constantinos & Yalcin, Erdal & Yotov, Yoto V., 2020. "The global sanctions data base," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 129(C).
    5. Matthias Efing & Stefan Goldbach & Volker Nitsch, 2018. "Freeze! Financial Sanctions and Bank Responses," CESifo Working Paper Series 7424, CESifo.
    6. Jonas Frank, 2017. "The empirical consequences of trade sanctions for directly and indirectly affected countries," FIW Working Paper series 174, FIW.
    7. Dizaji, S.F. & Lis, P. & Murshed, S.M. & Zweiri, M., 2020. "What the political economy literature tells us about blockades and sanctions," ISS Working Papers - General Series 663, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
    8. Xuepeng Liu & Huimin Shi, 2019. "Anti‐dumping duty circumvention through trade rerouting: Evidence from Chinese exporters," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(5), pages 1427-1466, May.
    9. Peeva, Aleksandra, 2019. "Did sanctions help Putin?," Discussion Papers 2019/7, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
    10. Crozet, Matthieu & Hinz, Julian & Stammann, Amrei Luise & Wanner, Joschka, 2020. "Worth the pain? Firms' exporting behavior to countries under sanctions," Kiel Working Papers 2160, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    11. Sanati, Youssef, 2019. "Der Wirtschaftsstandort Iran zwischen Förderung und Sanktion: Eine ARDL-modellbasierte Analyse ausländischer Investitionen," Arbeitspapiere 186, University of Münster, Institute for Cooperatives.
    12. Lorenzo Rotunno & Pierre-Louis Vézina, 2017. "Israel’s open-secret trade," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 153(2), pages 233-248, May.
    13. Matthieu Crozet & Julian Hinz, 2016. "Collateral Damage: The impact of the Russia sanctions on sanctioning countries’ exports," Working Papers 2016-16, CEPII research center.
    14. Wang, Yiwei & Wang, Ke & Chang, Chun-Ping, 2019. "The impacts of economic sanctions on exchange rate volatility," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 58-65.
    15. Felbermayr, Gabriel & Syropoulos, Constantinos & Yalcin, Erdal & Yotov, Yoto V., 2019. "On the effects of sanctions on trade and welfare: New evidence based on structural gravity and a new database," Kiel Working Papers 2131, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    16. Liudmila Popova & Ehsan Rasoulinezhad, 2016. "Have Sanctions Modified Iran’s Trade Policy? An Evidence of Asianization and De-Europeanization through the Gravity Model," Economies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(4), pages 1-1, October.
    17. Gern, Klaus-Jürgen & Hauber, Philipp & Kooths, Stefan & Stolzenburg, Ulrich, 2017. "Weltkonjunktur im Winter 2017 - Weltwirtschaft weiter im Aufschwung [World Economy Winter 2017 - World economic upswing continues]," Kieler Konjunkturberichte 37, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    18. Hinz, Julian, 2017. "The cost of sanctions: Estimating lost trade with gravity," Kiel Working Papers 2093, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    19. Hinz, Julian, 2017. "Friendly fire: Zu den Handelsauswirkungen der Russlandsanktionen," IfW-Box 2017.17, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    20. Oliver Fritz & Elisabeth Christen & Franz Sinabell & Julian Hinz, 2017. "Russia's and the EU's Sanctions. Economic and Trade Effects, Compliance and the Way Forward," WIFO Studies, WIFO, number 60669.
    21. Li, Haoran & Wan, Xibo & Zhang, Wendong, 2020. "How do Firms Respond to Political Tensions? Evidence from Chinese Food Importers," ISU General Staff Papers 202011250800001118, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    22. Joakim Gullstrand, 2020. "What goes around comes around: The effects of sanctions on Swedish firms in the wake of the Ukraine crisis," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(9), pages 2315-2342, September.
    23. Frank, Jonas, 2018. "The effects of economic sanctions on trade: New evidence from a panel PPML gravity approach," Hohenheim Discussion Papers in Business, Economics and Social Sciences 17-2018, University of Hohenheim, Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences.
    24. Gullstrand, Joakim, 2018. "What Goes Around Comes Around: The Effects of Sanctions on Swedish Firms in the Wake of the Ukraine Crisis," Working Papers 2018:28, Lund University, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F5 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy
    • F6 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization

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