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Gender Differences in Experimental Wage Negotiations


  • Marcus Dittrich
  • Andreas Knabe
  • Kristina Leipold


We examine behavioral gender differences and gender pairing effects in a laboratory experiment with face-to-face alternating-offers wage bargaining. Our results suggest that male players are able to obtain better bargaining outcomes than female players. Male employees get higher wages than female employees. Male employers pay lower wages to female employees than female employers pay to male employees. Moreover, we find gender differences in the first offers of the bargaining game.

Suggested Citation

  • Marcus Dittrich & Andreas Knabe & Kristina Leipold, 2012. "Gender Differences in Experimental Wage Negotiations," CESifo Working Paper Series 3862, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_3862

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    Cited by:

    1. Ruppert, Andrea & Voigt, Martina, 2014. "Verhandlungsstrategien und Verhandlungstaktiken in Gehaltsverhandlungen," Working Paper Series: Business and Law 06, Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Business and Law.
    2. Shuwen Li & Xiandong Qin & Daniel Houser, 2017. "Revisiting Gender Differences in Ultimatum Bargaining: Experimental Evidence from the US and China," Working Papers 1064, George Mason University, Interdisciplinary Center for Economic Science.
    3. Jaanika Merikull & Pille Mõtsmees, 2015. "Do you get what you ask? The gender gap in desired and realised wages," Bank of Estonia Working Papers wp2014-9, Bank of Estonia, revised 20 Jan 2015.
    4. Norma Burow & Miriam Beblo & Denis Beninger & Melanie Schröder, 2017. "Why Do Women Favor Same-Gender Competition? Evidence from a Choice Experiment," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1662, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    5. Elif E. Demiral & Johanna Mollerstrom, 2017. "Entitled Women – but Not Men – Make Tougher Strategic Demands as Proposers in the Ultimatum Game," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1708, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    6. Wei-Bin ZHANG, 2014. "Gender Discrimination, Education and Economic Growth in a Generalized Uzawa-Lucas Two-Sector Model," Timisoara Journal of Economics and Business, West University of Timisoara, Romania, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, vol. 7(1), pages 1-34.
    7. Hernandez-Arenaz, Iñigo & Iriberri, Nagore, 2016. "Women ask for less (only from men): Evidence from alternating-offer bargaining in the field," CEPR Discussion Papers 11514, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Marcus Dittrich & Kristina Leipold, 2014. "Gender Differences in Strategic Reasoning," CESifo Working Paper Series 4763, CESifo Group Munich.
    9. Anya Samek, 2015. "Gender Differences in Job Entry Decisions: A University-Wide Field Experiment," Natural Field Experiments 00419, The Field Experiments Website.
    10. Christine L. Exley & Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2016. "Knowing When to Ask: The Cost of Leaning In," NBER Working Papers 22961, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Dittrich, Marcus & Leipold, Kristina, 2014. "Gender differences in time preferences," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 122(3), pages 413-415.

    More about this item


    gender differences; wage bargaining; labor market experiment;

    JEL classification:

    • C72 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - Noncooperative Games
    • C91 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Laboratory, Individual Behavior
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination


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