IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ces/ceswps/_3309.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Extensive Margin of Exporting Products: A Firm-level Analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Costas Arkolakis
  • Marc-Andreas Muendler

Abstract

We use a panel of Brazilian exporters, their products, and destination markets to document a set of regularities for multi-product exporters: (i) few top-selling products account for the bulk of a firm’s exports in a market, (ii) the distribution of exporter scope (the number of products per firm in a market) is similar across markets, and (iii) within each market, exporter scope is positively associated with average sales per product. Our data also show that firms systematically export their highest-sales products across multiple destinations. To account for these regularities, we develop a model of firm-product heterogeneity with entry costs that depend on exporter scope. Estimating this model for the within-firm sales distribution we identify the nature and components of product entry costs. We find that firms face a strong decline in product sales with scope but also that market-specific entry costs drop fast. Counterfactual experiments with globally falling entry costs indicate that a large share of the simulated increase in trade is attributable to declines in the firm’s entry cost for the first product.

Suggested Citation

  • Costas Arkolakis & Marc-Andreas Muendler, 2010. "The Extensive Margin of Exporting Products: A Firm-level Analysis," CESifo Working Paper Series 3309, CESifo.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_3309
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.cesifo.org/DocDL/cesifo1_wp3309.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 1996. "A New Approach to Evaluating Trade Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(1), pages 107-125.
    2. di Giovanni, Julian & Levchenko, Andrei A., 2013. "Firm entry, trade, and welfare in Zipf's world," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(2), pages 283-296.
    3. Matthieu Crozet & Pamina Koenig, 2010. "Structural gravity equations with intensive and extensive margins," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 43(1), pages 41-62, February.
    4. Eckel, Carsten & Iacovone, Leonardo & Javorcik, Beata & Neary, J. Peter, 2015. "Multi-product firms at home and away: Cost- versus quality-based competence," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 216-232.
    5. Carsten Eckel & J. Peter Neary, 2010. "Multi-Product Firms and Flexible Manufacturing in the Global Economy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 77(1), pages 188-217.
    6. Hottman, Colin & Redding, Stephen J. & Weinstein, David E., 2014. "What is Firm Heterogeneity in Trade Models? The Role of Quality, Scope, Markups, and Cost," CEPR Discussion Papers 10133, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. João Amador & Luca Opromolla, 2013. "Product and destination mix in export markets," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 149(1), pages 23-53, March.
    8. Roberto Álvarez & Hasan Faruq & Ricardo A. LÓPEZ, 2013. "Is Previous Export Experience Important for New Exports?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(3), pages 426-441, March.
    9. World Bank, 2009. "World Development Indicators 2009," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 4367.
    10. Allanson, Paul & Montagna, Catia, 2005. "Multiproduct firms and market structure: An explorative application to the product life cycle," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 23(7-8), pages 587-597, September.
    11. Eduardo Morales & Gloria Sheu & Andrés Zahler, 2014. "Gravity and Extended Gravity: Using Moment Inequalities to Estimate a Model of Export Entry," NBER Working Papers 19916, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Timoshenko, Olga A., 2015. "Product switching in a model of learning," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 233-249.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Costas Arkolakis & Marc-Andreas Muendler, 2010. "The Extensive Margin of Exporting Products: A Firm-level Analysis," CESifo Working Paper Series 3309, CESifo.
    2. Mohammad Tariful Bari & Kankesu Jayanthakumaran, 0. "Networks, human capital and export success: evidence from Bangladesh," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-28.
    3. Carsten Eckel & Leonardo Iacovone & Beata Javorcik & J. Peter Neary, 2016. "Testing the Core-competency Model of Multi-product Exporters," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(4), pages 699-716, September.
    4. Arnarson, Björn Thor, 2020. "The superstar and the followers: Intra-firm product complementarity in international trade," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 277-304.
    5. Thierry Mayer & Marc J. Melitz & Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano, 2014. "Market Size, Competition, and the Product Mix of Exporters," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(2), pages 495-536, February.
    6. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen J. Redding & Peter K. Schott, 2012. "The Empirics of Firm Heterogeneity and International Trade," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 4(1), pages 283-313, July.
    7. Nakhoda, Aadil, 2012. "The effect of foreign competition on product switching activities: A firm level analysis," MPRA Paper 39167, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Paul De Grauwe & Zhaoyong Zhang & Filip Abraham & Jan Van Hove & Zuzanna Studnicka, 2016. "David vs. Goliath? Smaller European Exporting firms facing Asian competition on global markets," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 63(1), pages 18-40, February.
    9. Ngo Van Long & Yifan Li & Zhuang Miao, 2020. "Effects of Exchange Rate Volatility on Export Diversity: The Role of Production Constraints," CIRANO Working Papers 2020s-41, CIRANO.
    10. R. Monin & M. Suarez Castillo, 2020. "Product switching, market power and distance to core competency," Documents de Travail de l'Insee - INSEE Working Papers g2020-06, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques.
    11. Antoniades, Alexis & Clerides, Sofronis, 2018. "Micro-responses to shocks: Pricing, promotion, and entry," CEPR Discussion Papers 13281, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Thierry Mayer & Marc J. Melitz & Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano, 2014. "Market Size, Competition, and the Product Mix of Exporters," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(2), pages 495-536, February.
    13. Thierry Mayer & Marc J. Melitz & Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano, 2014. "Market Size, Competition, and the Product Mix of Exporters," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(2), pages 495-536, February.
    14. Ushchev, Philip, 2017. "Multi-product firms in monopolistic competition: The role of scale-scope spillovers," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(4), pages 675-689.
    15. Thierry Mayer & Marc J. Melitz & Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano, 2014. "Market Size, Competition, and the Product Mix of Exporters," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(2), pages 495-536, February.
    16. Thierry Mayer & Marc J. Melitz & Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano, 2014. "Market Size, Competition, and the Product Mix of Exporters," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(2), pages 495-536, February.
    17. Antoine Berthou & Lionel Fontagné, 2013. "How do Multiproduct Exporters React to a Change in Trade Costs?," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 115(2), pages 326-353, April.
    18. Mundaca, Gabriela, 2015. "Multi-product firms, exports and exchange rate policies. Evidence from an emerging economy," MPRA Paper 65751, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Robert Elliott & Supreeya Virakul, 2010. "Multi-product firms and exporting: a developing country perspective," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 146(4), pages 635-656, December.
    20. Fontagné, Lionel & Secchi, Angelo & Tomasi, Chiara, 2018. "Exporters’ product vectors across markets," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 150-180.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    international trade; heterogeneous firms; multi-product firms; firm and product panel data; Brazil;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_3309. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/cesifde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Klaus Wohlrabe (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/cesifde.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.