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Structural gravity equations with intensive and extensive margins

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  • Matthieu Crozet
  • Pamina Koenig

Abstract

Recent trade models with heterogeneous firms have changed the interpretation of gravity equations. Chaney (2008) shows that the effect of distance on the number of exporters and average exports depends on key parameters characterizing the elements of market structure. We use firm‐level export data to estimate the structural parameters of Chaney's model. Controlling for the fixed costs of exporting, our estimated parameters match, for 28 out of 34 industries, the model's theoretical predictions. Our industry parameters allow us to evaluate separately the effect of transport costs and tariffs on trade, without having to resort to detailed data on trade frictions. Les modèles de commerce international avec firmes hétérogènes ont modifié l'interprétation des équations de gravité (Chaney 2008). L'effet de la distance sur le nombre d'exportateurs et la valeur moyenne exportée dépend d'un ensemble de paramètres caractérisant l'organisation du marché. Cet article mobilise des données individuelles sur les exportateurs français pour conduire une estimation structurelle de ces paramètres. Il confirme la pertinence du cadre théorique; pour 28 secteurs sur 34, les paramètres estimés sont conformes aux attentes théoriques. Il montre aussi que les coûts de transport ont un impact très différent de celui des droits de douanes, et que l'impact de l'ouverture commerciale dépend fortement de l'organisation des marchés.

Suggested Citation

  • Matthieu Crozet & Pamina Koenig, 2010. "Structural gravity equations with intensive and extensive margins," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 43(1), pages 41-62, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:canjec:v:43:y:2010:i:1:p:41-62
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-5982.2009.01563.x
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Thomas Chaney, 2008. "Distorted Gravity: The Intensive and Extensive Margins of International Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1707-1721, September.
    2. Christian Broda & David E. Weinstein, 2006. "Globalization and the Gains From Variety," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 121(2), pages 541-585.
    3. Keith Head & John Ries, 2001. "Increasing Returns versus National Product Differentiation as an Explanation for the Pattern of U.S.-Canada Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 858-876, September.
    4. Marc J. Melitz & Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano, 2008. "Market Size, Trade, and Productivity," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 75(1), pages 295-316.
    5. Krugman, Paul, 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 950-959, December.
    6. Pierre-Philippe Combes & Miren Lafourcade, 2005. "Transport costs: measures, determinants, and regional policy implications for France," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(3), pages 319-349, June.
    7. Hélène Erkel‐Rousse & Daniel Mirza, 2002. "Import price elasticities: reconsidering the evidence," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 35(2), pages 282-306, May.
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    9. David Hummels, 2007. "Transportation Costs and International Trade in the Second Era of Globalization," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 131-154, Summer.
    10. Anne-Célia Disdier & Keith Head, 2008. "The Puzzling Persistence of the Distance Effect on Bilateral Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(1), pages 37-48, February.
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    12. Marc J. Melitz & Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano, 2008. "Market Size, Trade, and Productivity (DOI:10.111/j.1467-937x.2007.00463.x)," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 75(3), pages 985-985.
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    JEL classification:

    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation

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