IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

External Costs of Transport in the U.S

  • Delucchi, Mark A.
  • McCubbin, Donald R.
Registered author(s):

    In this chapter we report estimates of the external costs of transport in the United States.1 Generally, we cover road, rail, air, and water transport; passenger transport and freight transport; and congestion, accident, air pollution, climate change, noise, water pollution, and energy-security costs. However, we were not able to find estimates for all cost categories; in particular, there are fewer estimates for freight transport than for passenger transport, fewer estimates for water transport than for other modes, and fewer estimates of water pollution costs than of other costs. Table 1 summarizes the quality of estimates in each category. In our review, negative externalities are the unaccounted for or unpriced costs of an action. This means that they are the result of individual decisions or actions, such as whether to drive or take a train, or freight something by ship or plane, and are related to the explicit prices and unaccounted-for costs of those choices. Estimates of the external costs of transport may be used for several purposes: as a guide to more economically efficient pricing (given that the optimal price is equal to the private market price plus the estimated marginal external costs); as a guide to allocating research and development funds to mitigate the largest external costs; as part of a cost-benefit analysis of optimal investment in transportation modes and infrastructure; and as part of historical or comparative analyses. As indicated in Table 1, the available estimates do not fully characterize all costs for all modes. Moreover, the wide variations in estimation methods, data, and assumptions among even the “good†estimates confound the comparison of estimates across modes. As a result, we are able to make only general comparisons among modes and general statements about total costs of transport. In the following sections we review recent estimates of external costs by mode in the U. S. In each section we first review methods and issues in the estimation of the cost, and then present estimates of the costs. For each cost category (e.g., congestion delay, accidents) we summarize estimates of the cost by mode and study. Presenting the estimates in this way indicates where more research and analysis is needed.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/13n8v8gq.pdf;origin=repeccitec
    Download Restriction: no

    Paper provided by Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis in its series Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series with number qt13n8v8gq.

    as
    in new window

    Length:
    Date of creation: 01 Jan 2010
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:cdl:itsdav:qt13n8v8gq
    Contact details of provider: Postal:
    2028 Academic Surge, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616

    Phone: (530) 752-6548
    Web page: http://www.escholarship.org/repec/itsdavis/
    Email:


    More information through EDIRC

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Edlin, Aaron S., 2002. "Per-Mile Premiums for Auto Insurance," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt3w26w6xp, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    2. W. Kip Viscusi & Joseph E. Aldy, 2003. "The Value of a Statistical Life: A Critical Review of Market Estimates throughout the World," NBER Working Papers 9487, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Aaron S. Edlin, 2003. "Per-Mile Premiums for Auto Insurance," Law and Economics 0303001, EconWPA.
    4. Small, Kenneth A. & Kazimi, Camilla, 1995. "On the Costs of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt0sx81025, University of California Transportation Center.
    5. Parry, Ian W.H. & Walls, Margaret & Harrington, Winston, 2007. "Automobile Externalities and Policies," Discussion Papers dp-06-26, Resources For the Future.
    6. Delucchi, Mark A. & Murphy, James & Kim, Jin & McCubbin, Donald R., 1996. "The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1j6730td, University of California Transportation Center.
    7. David Anthoff & Cameron Hepburn & Richard S.J. Tol, 2007. "Equity Weighting and the Marginal Damage Costs of Climate Change," Working Papers 2007.43, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    8. David Gillen & David Levinson & Jean Michel Mathieu & Adib Kanafani, 1997. "The full cost of high-speed rail: an engineering approach," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 31(2), pages 189-215.
    9. Button, Kenneth J., 1994. "Alternative approaches toward containing transport externalities: An international comparison," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 289-305, July.
    10. Jan K. Brueckner & Ann G. Largey, 2006. "Social Interaction and Urban Sprawl," Working Papers 060707, University of California-Irvine, Department of Economics.
    11. Nijkamp, Peter & Vindigni, Gabriella & Nunes, Paulo A.L.D., 2008. "Economic valuation of biodiversity: A comparative study," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 217-231, September.
    12. Nash, Chris & Sansom, Tom & Still, Ben, 2001. "Modifying transport prices to internalise externalities: evidence from European case studies," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 413-431, July.
    13. Delucchi, Mark A. & Murphy, James J., 2008. "How large are tax subsidies to motor-vehicle users in the US?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 196-208, May.
    14. Calfee, John & Winston, Clifford, 1998. "The value of automobile travel time: implications for congestion policy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 83-102, July.
    15. Forkenbrock, David J., 1999. "External costs of intercity truck freight transportation," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 33(7-8), pages 505-526.
    16. Lyons, Glenn & Jain, Juliet & Holley, David, 2007. "The use of travel time by rail passengers in Great Britain," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 107-120, January.
    17. repec:ucp:bkecon:9781884829987 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Brueckner, Jan K, 2002. "Internalization of airport congestion," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 141-147.
    19. Jan K. Brueckner, 2002. "Internalization of Airport Congestion: A Network Analysis," CESifo Working Paper Series 756, CESifo Group Munich.
    20. Donald F. Vitaliano, 1992. "An economic assessment of the social costs of highway salting and the efficiency of substituting a new deicing material," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(3), pages 397-418.
    21. Edlin, Aaron S., 2002. "Per-Mile Premiums for Auto Insurance," Competition Policy Center, Working Paper Series qt6318920c, Competition Policy Center, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    22. Nils Soguel, 1995. "Costing the traffic barrier effect: A contingent valuation survey," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 6(3), pages 301-308, October.
    23. David Pearce, 2003. "The Social Cost of Carbon and its Policy Implications," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(3), pages 362-384.
    24. Delucchi, Mark & Murphy, James & McCubbin, Donald, 2002. "The Health and Visibility Cost of Air Pollution: A Comparison of Estimation Methods," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt03s2x9xb, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    25. Gorman, Michael F., 2008. "Evaluating the public investment mix in US freight transportation infrastructure," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 1-14, January.
    26. Muller, Nicholas Z. & Mendelsohn, Robert, 2007. "Measuring the damages of air pollution in the United States," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 1-14, July.
    27. Peter Bickel & Rainer Friedrich & Heike Link & Louise Stewart & Chris Nash, 2005. "Introducing Environmental Externalities into Transport Pricing: Measurement and Implications," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(4), pages 389-415, November.
    28. Richard Carson & Robert Mitchell & Michael Hanemann & Raymond Kopp & Stanley Presser & Paul Ruud, 2003. "Contingent Valuation and Lost Passive Use: Damages from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 25(3), pages 257-286, July.
    29. Andersson, Henrik & Ögren, Mikael, 2007. "Noise charges in railway infrastructure: A pricing schedule based on the marginal cost principle," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 204-213, May.
    30. Ozbay, Kaan & Bartin, Bekir & Yanmaz-Tuzel, Ozlem & Berechman, Joseph, 2007. "Alternative methods for estimating full marginal costs of highway transportation," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(8), pages 768-786, October.
    31. Wahba, Mohammed & Hope, Chris, 2006. "The marginal impact of carbon dioxide under two scenarios of future emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(17), pages 3305-3316, November.
    32. Morrison, Steven A. & Winston, Clifford, 2008. "The effect of FAA expenditures on air travel delays," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 669-678, March.
    33. Delucchi, Mark A., 2007. "Do motor-vehicle users in the US pay their way?," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(10), pages 982-1003, December.
    34. Edlin, Aaron S., 2002. "Per-Mile Premiums for Auto Insurance," Berkeley Olin Program in Law & Economics, Working Paper Series qt9bn436k9, Berkeley Olin Program in Law & Economics.
    35. repec:reg:rpubli:282 is not listed on IDEAS
    36. Forkenbrock, David J., 2001. "Comparison of external costs of rail and truck freight transportation," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 321-337, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdl:itsdav:qt13n8v8gq. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.