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Economic and Statistical Measures of Forecast Accuracy

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  • Granger, C.W.J.
  • Pesaran, M. H.

Abstract

This paper argues in favour of a closer link between decision and forecast evaluation problems. Although the idea of using decision theory for forecast evaluation appears early in the dynamic stochastic programming literature, and has continued to be used in meteorological forecasts, it is hardly mentioned in standard academic textbooks on economic forecasting. Some of the main issues involved are illustrated in the context of a two-state, two-action decision problem as well as in a more general setting. Relationships between statistical and economic methods of forecast evaluation are discussed and useful links between Kuipers score, used as a measure of forecast accuracy in the meteorology literature, and the market timing tests used in finance, are established. An empirical application to the problem of stock market predictability is also provided, and the conditions under which such predictability could be exploited in the presence of transaction costs are discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Granger, C.W.J. & Pesaran, M. H., 1999. "Economic and Statistical Measures of Forecast Accuracy," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9910, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  • Handle: RePEc:cam:camdae:9910
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Laura Bojke & Karl Claxton & Stephen Palmer & Mark Sculpher, 2006. "Defining and characterising structural uncertainty in decision analytic models," Working Papers 009cherp, Centre for Health Economics, University of York.
    2. M. Hashem Pesaran & Paolo Zaffaroni, 2004. "Model Averaging and Value-at-Risk Based Evaluation of Large Multi Asset Volatility Models for Risk Management," CESifo Working Paper Series 1358, CESifo Group Munich.
    3. Michael P. Clements & David I. Harvey, 2010. "Forecast encompassing tests and probability forecasts," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(6), pages 1028-1062.
    4. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Timmermann, Allan, 2004. "How costly is it to ignore breaks when forecasting the direction of a time series?," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 411-425.
    5. Garrat, A. & Lee, K. & Pesaran, M.H. & Shin, Y., 2000. "Forecast Uncertainties in Macroeconometric Modelling: An Application to the UK Economy," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0004, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    6. Elliott, Graham & Komunjer, Ivana & Timmermann, Allan G, 2003. "Estimating Loss Function Parameters," CEPR Discussion Papers 3821, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Papastamos, Dimitrios & Matysiak, George & Stevenson, Simon, 2015. "Assessing the accuracy and dispersion of real estate investment forecasts," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 141-152.
    8. Anthony Garratt & Shaun P Vahey, 2006. "UK Real-Time Macro Data Characteristics," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 116(509), pages 119-135, February.
    9. Pesaran, Hashem & Timmermann, Allan, 2005. "Real-Time Econometrics," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(01), pages 212-231, February.
    10. Yang Yang & Tae-Hwy Lee, 2004. "Bagging Binary Predictors for Time Series," Econometric Society 2004 Far Eastern Meetings 512, Econometric Society.
    11. Anthony Garratt & Gary Koop & ShaunP. Vahey, 2008. "Forecasting Substantial Data Revisions in the Presence of Model Uncertainty," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(530), pages 1128-1144, July.
    12. Roch, Oriol, 2013. "Histogram-based prediction of directional price relatives," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 110-115.
    13. Kajal Lahiri & Wenxiong Yao & Peg Young, 2003. "Cycles in the Transportation Sector and the Aggregate Economy," Discussion Papers 03-14, University at Albany, SUNY, Department of Economics.
    14. Kargin, Vladislav, 2002. "Value investing in emerging markets: risks and benefits," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 233-244, September.
    15. Patton, Andrew J & Timmermann, Allan G, 2003. "Properties of Optimal Forecasts," CEPR Discussion Papers 4037, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    16. Hyndman, Rob J. & Koehler, Anne B., 2006. "Another look at measures of forecast accuracy," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 679-688.
    17. Clements, Michael P, 2006. "Internal consistency of survey respondents.forecasts : Evidence based on the Survey of Professional Forecasters," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 772, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    18. Thomakos, Dimitrios D. & Wang, Tao, 2010. "'Optimal' probabilistic and directional predictions of financial returns," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, pages 102-119.
    19. Anthony Garratt & Kevin Lee, 2006. "Investing Under Model Uncertainty: Decision Based Evaluation of Exchange Rate and Interest Rate Forecasts in the US, UK and Japan," Birkbeck Working Papers in Economics and Finance 0616, Birkbeck, Department of Economics, Mathematics & Statistics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Decision theory; Forecast evaluation; Probabilistsic forecasts; Economic and statistical measures of forecast accuracy; Stock market predictability;

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General

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