IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The Discriminatory Effect of Domestic Regulations on International Trade in Services: Evidence from Firm-Level Data

  • Crozet, M.
  • Milet, E.
  • Mirza, D.

In order to promote international trade in services, the WTO-GATS aims at progressively eliminating discriminatory regulations, which apply to foreign suppliers, by guaranteeing equal national treatment. This paper looks instead at the trade effect of domestic regulations, which apply to all firms indifferently and do not intend to exclude foreign suppliers. We propose a theory-based empirical test to determine whether or not these domestic regulations affect foreign suppliers more than local ones. We take this test to the data by using French firm-level exports of professional services to OECD countries. Our econometric results show that domestic regulations in the importing markets matter significantly for trade in services. They reduce both the decision to export and the individual exports. These results tend to prove that domestic regulations are de facto discriminatory even if they are not de jure.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Banque de France in its series Working papers with number 451.

in new window

Length: 36 pages
Date of creation: 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bfr:banfra:451
Contact details of provider: Postal: Banque de France 31 Rue Croix des Petits Champs LABOLOG - 49-1404 75049 PARIS
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Keith Head & Thierry Mayer & John Ries, 2009. "How remote is the offshoring threat?," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00639596, HAL.
  2. Breinlich, Holger & Criscuolo, Chiara, 2010. "International Trade in Services: A Portrait of Importers and Exporters," CEPR Discussion Papers 7837, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Giuliano Conti & Alessia Lo Turco & Daniela Maggioni, 2010. "Exporters in Services: new Evidence from Italian Firms," Applied Economics Quarterly (formerly: Konjunkturpolitik), Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 56(1), pages 73-98.
  4. Jagdish Bhagwati & Arvind Panagariya & T. N. Srinivasan, 2004. "The Muddles over Outsourcing," International Trade 0408004, EconWPA.
  5. Andrew.B Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen Redding & Peter K. Schott, 2007. "Firms in international trade," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 3682, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  6. Guglielmo Barone & Federico Cingano, 2008. "Service regulation and growth: evidence from OECD countries," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 675, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  7. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2000. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 485, Boston College Department of Economics.
  8. Jens Arnold & Giuseppe Nicoletti & Stefano Scarpetta, 2008. "Regulation, Allocative Efficiency and Productivity in OECD Countries: Industry and Firm-Level Evidence," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 616, OECD Publishing.
  9. Fukunari Kimura & Hyun-Hoon Lee, 2006. "The Gravity Equation in International Trade in Services," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 142(1), pages 92-121, April.
  10. Bourlès, R. & Cette, G. & Lopez, J. & Mairesse, J. & Nicoletti, G., 2010. "Do product market regulations in upstream sectors curb productivity growth? Panel data evidence for OECD countries," Working papers 283, Banque de France.
  11. Van Der Marel, Erik & Shepherd, Ben, 2011. "Services trade, regulation, and regional integration: Evidence from sectoral data," MPRA Paper 34343, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. Crozet, Matthieu & Head, Keith & Mayer, Thierry, 2009. "Quality sorting and trade: Firm-level evidence for French wine," CEPR Discussion Papers 7295, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  13. Joseph F. Francois & B. Hoekman, 2009. "Services Trade and Policy," wiiw Working Papers 60, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  14. Hoekman, Bernard & Mattoo, Aaditya, 2011. "Services trade liberalization and regulatory reform : re-invigorating international cooperation," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5517, The World Bank.
  15. Ingo Borchert & Batshur Gootiiz & Aaditya Mattoo, 2014. "Policy Barriers to International Trade in Services: Evidence from a New Database," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(1), pages 162-188.
  16. Kelle, Markus & Kleinert, Jörn, 2010. "German firms in service trade," Economics Working Papers 2010,03, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
  17. Edward L. Glaeser & Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2004. "Do Institutions Cause Growth?," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 271-303, 09.
  18. Doug Miller & A. Colin Cameron & Jonah B. Gelbach, 2006. "Bootstrap-Based Improvements for Inference with Clustered Errors," Working Papers 621, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  19. Julien Martin, 2010. "Markups, Quality and Transport Costs," Working Papers 2010-17, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
  20. Paul Conway & Giuseppe Nicoletti, 2006. "Product Market Regulation in the Non-Manufacturing Sectors of OECD Countries: Measurement and Highlights," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 530, OECD Publishing.
  21. Marc J. Melitz & Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano, 2005. "Market Size, Trade, and Productivity," Development Working Papers 201, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano.
  22. repec:oup:qjecon:v:118:y:2003:i:3:p:879-907 is not listed on IDEAS
  23. Keith Walsh, 2006. "Trade in Services: Does Gravity Hold? A Gravity Model Approach to Estimating Barriers to Services Trade," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp183, IIIS.
  24. Nunn, Nathan, 2007. "Relationship-Specificity, Incomplete Contracts, and the Pattern of Trade," Scholarly Articles 4686801, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  25. Keith Head & Thierry Mayer, 2013. "Gravity Equations: Workhorse, Toolkit, and Cookbook," Sciences Po Economics Discussion Papers 2013-02, Sciences Po Departement of Economics.
  26. Anita Wölfl & Isabelle Wanner & Tomasz Koźluk & Giuseppe Nicoletti, 2009. "Ten Years of Product Market Reform in OECD Countries: Insights from a Revised PMR Indicator," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 695, OECD Publishing.
  27. Giuseppe Nicoletti & Stefano Scarpetta, 2003. "Regulation, Productivity and Growth: OECD Evidence," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 347, OECD Publishing.
  28. repec:adr:anecst:y:2009:i:93-94:p:08 is not listed on IDEAS
  29. Andrea Ariu, 2012. "Services versus goods trade: Are they the same?," Working Paper Research 237, National Bank of Belgium.
  30. Keith Head & Thierry Mayer, 2011. "Gravity, market potential and economic development," Post-Print hal-01024204, HAL.
  31. Carmen Fillat-Castej—n & Joseph Francois & Julia Woerz, 2008. "TRADE THROUGH FDI: investing in services," IIDE Discussion Papers 20080502, Institue for International and Development Economics.
  32. repec:oup:qjecon:v:122:y:2007:i:2:p:569-600 is not listed on IDEAS
  33. Cyrille Schwellnus, 2007. "The Effect of Domestic Regulation on Services Trade Revisited," Working Papers 2007-08, CEPII research center.
  34. McCallum, John, 1995. "National Borders Matter: Canada-U.S. Regional Trade Patterns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 615-23, June.
  35. Kox, Henk L.M. & Nordås, Hildegunn Kyvik, 2007. "Services trade and domestic regulation," MPRA Paper 2116, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  36. Sébastien Jean & Giuseppe Nicoletti, 2004. "Regulation and Wage Premia," Working Papers 2004-12, CEPII research center.
  37. Henk Kox & Arjan Lejour, 2005. "Regulatory heterogeneity as obstacle for international services trade," CPB Discussion Paper 49, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bfr:banfra:451. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Michael brassart)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.