TRADE THROUGH FDI: investing in services
The type of relationship between different modes of trading services across international borders is of great interest, not only for the academic literature but also for the formulation trade liberalization offers under the GATS. Even more than for trade in goods, it is thus important to know whether cross-border trade and trade through commercial presence abroad act as complements or substitutes in services. The most commonly used analytical tool in the empirical analysis of this question is the gravity model of trade. This paper offers a consistent theoretical foundation for the application of the gravity model to services and to commercial presence, using a composite demand model with offers testable hypothesis about the complementary or substitutive relationship between different modes of supply. It further links the results to policy variables like market regulations which may act directly or implicitly as barriers to trade. Our empirical test for the sample of OECD countries over the decade 1994- 2004 yields robust complementary effects in the short-run, which is reinforced in the long-run by an increased potential for cross-border imports based on previous FDI inflows. A detailed analysis by individual service sectors highlights business, communication and financial services as showing the largest potential for cross-border trade when market regulations are reduced and when commercial presence increases.
|Date of creation:||01 May 2008|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.i4ide.org/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991.
"Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
- Tom Doan, . "RATS program to replicate Arellano-Bond 1991 dynamic panel," Statistical Software Components RTZ00169, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Manuela Magalhães & Ana Paula Africano, 2007.
"A Panel Analysis of the FDI Impact on International Trade,"
NIPE Working Papers
6/2007, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
- Manuela Magalhães & Ana Paula Africano, 2007. "A Panel Analysis of the FDI Impact on International Trade," FEP Working Papers 235, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
- Pesaran, M.H. & Smith, R., 1992.
"Estimating Long-Run Relationships From Dynamic Heterogeneous Panels,"
Cambridge Working Papers in Economics
9215, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Pesaran, M. Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1995. "Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 79-113, July.
- Pain, Nigel & Wakelin, Katharine, 1998. "Export Performance and the Role of Foreign Direct Investment," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 66(0), pages 62-88, Supplemen.
- Kolstad, Ivar & Villanger, Espen, 2008.
"Determinants of foreign direct investment in services,"
European Journal of Political Economy,
Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 518-533, June.
- Ivar Kolstad & Espen Villanger, 2004. "Determinants of foreign direct investment in services," CMI Working Papers WP 2004: 2, CMI (Chr. Michelsen Institute), Bergen, Norway.
- Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1995.
"Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models,"
IFS Working Papers
W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
- Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995. "Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Economics Papers 104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- R Blundell & Steven Bond, . "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Peter Egger & Michael Pfaffermayr, 2000.
"Trade, multinational sales, and FDI in a three-factors model,"
Economics working papers
2000-13, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
- Peter Egger & Michael Pfaffermayr, 2005. "Trade, Multinational Sales, and FDI in a Three-factor Model," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(4), pages 659-675, 09.
- Nigel Pain & Desirée van Welsum, 2004.
"International Production Relocation and Exports of Services,"
OECD Economic Studies,
OECD Publishing, vol. 2004(1), pages 67-94.
- Nigel Pain, 2004. "International Production Relocation and Exports of Services," NIESR Discussion Papers 105, National Institute of Economic and Social Research.
- Ray Barrell & Dirk Willem te Velde, 2002. "European Integration and Manufactures Import Demand: An Empirical Investigation of Ten European Countries," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 3(3), pages 263-293, 08.
- Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 25-51, May.
- Moshirian, Fariborz, 1997. "Foreign direct investment in insurance services in the United States," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 159-173, June.
- Hill, T P, 1977. "On Goods and Services," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 23(4), pages 315-38, December.
- Moshirian, Fariborz & Li, Donghui & Sim, Ah-Boon, 2005. "Intra-industry trade in financial services," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(7), pages 1090-1107, November.
- Paul Brenton & Francesca Di Mauro & Matthias LÃ¼cke, 1999.
"Economic Integration and FDI: An Empirical Analysis of Foreign Investment in the EU and in Central and Eastern Europe,"
Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 95-121, June.
- Brenton, Paul & DiMauro, Francesca & Lücke, Matthias, 1998. "Economic integration and FDI: an empirical analysis of foreign investment in the EU and in Central and Eastern Europe," Kiel Working Papers 890, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- V.N. Balasubramanyam, 2008. "Foreign Direct Investment," Chapters, in: International Handbook of Development Economics, Volumes 1 & 2, chapter 39 Edward Elgar.
- Buch, Claudia M. & Lipponer, Alexander, 2004. "FDI versus cross-border financial services: The globalisation of German banks," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2004,05, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- Hoekman, Bernard, 2006. "Liberalizing trade in services : a survey," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4030, The World Bank.
- Lionel Fontagné, 1999. "Foreign Direct Investment and International Trade: Complements or Substitutes?," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 1999/3, OECD Publishing.
- Donghui Li & Fariborz Moshirian & Ah-Boon Sim, 2003. "The Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Insurance Services," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 70(2), pages 269-287.
- Moshirian, Fariborz, 2001. "International investment in financial services," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 317-337, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lnz:wpaper:20080502. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (iide webmaster)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.