Income and democracy: revisiting the evidence
It is well-known in the literature that income per capita is strongly correlated with the level of democracy across countries. In an infl uential paper, Acemoglu et al. (2008) fi nd that this linear correlation disappears once they control for country-specifi c effects focusing on within-country variation. In this paper we fi nd evidence of a non-linear effect from income to democracy even after controlling for country-specifi c effects. While a positive effect emerges for poor countries, this effect vanishes for rich countries.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Robert J. Barro, 1995.
"Inflation and Economic Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
5326, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Erich Gundlach & Martin Paldam, 2008.
"A Farewell to Critical Junctures: Sorting Out Long-run Causality of Income and Democracy,"
Kiel Working Papers
1410, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- Gundlach, Erich & Paldam, Martin, 2009. "A farewell to critical junctures: Sorting out long-run causality of income and democracy," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 340-354, September.
- Erich Gundlach & Martin Paldam, 2008. "A farewell to critical junctures: Sorting out long-run causality of income and democracy," Economics Working Papers 2008-04, School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus.
- Johnson, Simon & Larson, William & Papageorgiou, Chris & Subramanian, Arvind, 2013.
"Is newer better? Penn World Table Revisions and their impact on growth estimates,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 255-274.
- Simon Johnson & William Larson & Chris Papageorgiou & Arvind Subramanian, 2009. "Is Newer Better? Penn World Table Revisions and Their Impact on Growth Estimates," NBER Working Papers 15455, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Simon Johnson & William Larson & Chris Papageorgiou & Arvind Subramanian, 2009. "Is Newer Better? Penn World Table Revisions and Their Impact on Growth Estimates," Working Papers 191, Center for Global Development.
- Zak, Paul J. & Feng, Yi, 2003. "A dynamic theory of the transition to democracy," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 1-25, September.
- Jess Benhabib & Alejandro Corvalan & Mark M. Spiegel, 2011.
"Reestablishing the income-democracy nexus,"
Working Paper Series
2011-09, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Griliches, Zvi & Hausman, Jerry A., 1986.
"Errors in variables in panel data,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 93-118, February.
- Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1995.
"Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models,"
IFS Working Papers
W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
- R Blundell & Steven Bond, . "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995. "Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Economics Papers 104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Robert J. Barro, 1999.
"Determinants of Democracy,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(S6), pages S158-S183, December.
- Heid, Benedikt & Langer, Julian & Larch, Mario, 2012.
"Income and democracy: Evidence from system GMM estimates,"
Elsevier, vol. 116(2), pages 166-169.
- Benedikt Heid & Julian Langer & Mario Larch, 2011. "Income and democracy:Evidence from system GMM estimates," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Paper No. 118, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
- Hillier, Grant H, 1990. "On the Normalization of Structural Equations: Properties of Direct Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(5), pages 1181-94, September.
- Acemoglu, Daron & Johnson, Simon & Robinson, James A & Yared, Pierre, 2005.
"Income and Democracy,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
5273, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- M Arellano & O Bover, 1990.
"Another Look at the Instrumental Variable Estimation of Error-Components Models,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0007, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
- Bhargava, Alok & Sargan, J D, 1983. "Estimating Dynamic Random Effects Models from Panel Data Covering Short Time Periods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(6), pages 1635-59, November.
- Anderson, T. W. & Hsiao, Cheng, 1982. "Formulation and estimation of dynamic models using panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 47-82, January.
- Enrique Moral-Benito, 2011. "Dynamic panels with predetermined regressors: likelihood-based estimation and Bayesian averaging with an application to cross-country growth," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 1109, Banco de Espa�a.
- Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991.
"Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
- Tom Doan, . "RATS program to replicate Arellano-Bond 1991 dynamic panel," Statistical Software Components RTZ00169, Boston College Department of Economics.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bde:wpaper:1115. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mar�a Beiro. Electronic Dissemination of Information Unit. Research Department. Banco de Espa�a)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.