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Produttività del lavoro, dinamica salariale e squilibri commerciali nei Paesi dell’Eurozona: un’analisi empirica

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  • Gaetano Perone

Abstract

L’obiettivo del paper è duplice. Da un lato proveremo a determinare se e in quale misura il trentennale processo di precarizzazione e di progressivo smantellamento dei diritti dei lavoratori nei Paesi dell’Eurozona abbia influito sul funzionamento del mercato del lavoro, e dall’altro cercheremo di verificare se i cambiamenti di paradigma istituzionale – modificando gli indirizzi di politica economica – abbiano o meno favorito un ri-orientamento virtuoso dei modelli produttivi nazionali. Per pervenire a tale scopo, divideremo l’elaborato in due sezioni: i) una prima parte di analisi qualitativa comparata degli indici istituzionali del mercato del lavoro e della dinamica salariale dei Paesi dell’Eurozona; ii) e una seconda parte di analisi empirica sul ruolo svolto dalle istituzioni del lavoro sulla dinamica occupazionale e produttiva, e sulla funzione svolta dal costo del lavoro nel riassorbimento degli squilibri commerciali dei Paesi “periferici” dell’area. L’indagine mostrerà come la riduzione trasversale delle tutele a favore del fattore lavoro non abbia generato alcun impatto certo ed univoco sui livelli occupazionali; al contrario, essa ha condotto a un incremento della quota dei lavoratori precari e – compatibilmente con l’approccio Kaldoriano-Classico – a una perniciosa spirale di riduzione dei salari, della domanda aggregata e della produttività, ponendo de facto seri limiti all’innovazione e alle ristrutturazioni tecnologiche. Infine, verificheremo come il riequilibrio dei conti con l’estero dei Paesi “periferici” sia stato mediato, più che da una ritrovata competitività sui mercati internazionali, proprio dalle politiche di dumping salariale e di distruzione della domanda interna.

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  • Gaetano Perone, 2017. "Produttività del lavoro, dinamica salariale e squilibri commerciali nei Paesi dell’Eurozona: un’analisi empirica," Working Papers 0028, ASTRIL - Associazione Studi e Ricerche Interdisciplinari sul Lavoro.
  • Handle: RePEc:ast:wpaper:0028
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    Keywords

    flessibilità del lavoro; salari; gap di produttività; vincolo estero tecnologico; Eurozona;

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