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Impact of Zero Tillage in India's Rice-Wheat Systems

Author

Listed:
  • Laxmi, Vijay
  • Erenstein, Olaf
  • Gupta, Raj K.

Abstract

To date, the most widely adopted resource conserving technology (RCT) in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP)has been zero-tillage (ZT) for wheat after rice, particularly in India. This report reviews and synthesizes the experience with zero tillage in the Indian IGP. Zero tillage of wheat after rice generates significant benefits at the farm level, both in terms of significant yield gains (6–10%, particularly due to timelier planting of wheat) and cost savings (5–10%, particularly tillage savings). These benefits explain the widespread interest of farmers and the rapidity of the diffusion across the Indian IGP, further aided by the wide applicability of this mechanical innovation. The study subsequently reports on the findings of village-level focus-group discussions in Punjab, Haryana and Eastern Uttar Pradesh (UP). These typically corroborate the findings reported in the reviewed literature. They also highlight the significant extent and speed of ZT adoption in each village as well as the attendant substantial cost savings and yield increases. A conservative ex-ante assessment of supply-shift gains alone (excluding other social and environmental gains), shows that the investment in zero tillage/reduced tillage (ZT/RT) research and development by the Rice-Wheat Consortium of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (RWC) and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico (CIMMYT) was highly beneficial with a benefit-cost ratio of 39, a net present value (NPV) of US$ 94 million and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 57%. The study highlights the potential gains from successful technology transfer and adaptation in natural resources management (NRM).

Suggested Citation

  • Laxmi, Vijay & Erenstein, Olaf & Gupta, Raj K., 2007. "Impact of Zero Tillage in India's Rice-Wheat Systems," Impact Studies 56093, CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:cimmis:56093
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    File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56093
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Praduman kumar & Anjani kumar & Surabhi Mittal, 2004. "Total Factor Productivity of Crop Sector in the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India: Sustainability issues revisited," Indian Economic Review, Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, vol. 39(1), pages 169-201, January.
    2. Vincent, David P. & Quirke, Derek, 2002. "Controlling Phalaris Minor in the Indian Rice-Wheat Belt," Impact Assessment Series (IAS) 47696, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
    3. The World Bank,, 2005. "India: Re-Energizing the Agricultural Sector to Sustain Growth and Reduce Poverty," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195674323.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Pal, Suresh, 2011. "Impacts of CGIAR Crop Improvement and Natural Resource Management Research: A Review of Evidence," Agricultural Economics Research Review, Agricultural Economics Research Association (India), vol. 24(2).
    2. Tripathi, R.S. & Raju, R. & Thimmappa, K., 2013. "Impact of Zero Tillage on Economics of Wheat Production in Haryana," Agricultural Economics Research Review, Agricultural Economics Research Association (India), vol. 26(1).
    3. Erenstein, Olaf & Thorpe, William, 2011. "Livelihoods and agro-ecological gradients: A meso-level analysis in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 104(1), pages 42-53, January.
    4. Khan, Md. Tajuddin & Kishore, Avinash & Pandey, Divya & Joshi, Pramod Kumar, 2016. "Using zero tillage to ameliorate yield losses from weather shocks: Evidence from panel data in Haryana, India:," IFPRI discussion papers 1562, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    5. Vijesh Krishna & Prakashan Veettil, 2015. "Productivity and Efficiency Impacts of Zero Tillage Wheat in Northwest Indo-Gangetic Plains," Working Papers id:7716, eSocialSciences.
    6. Krishna, Vijesh V. & Mehrotra, Meera Bhatia & Teufel, Nils & Bishnoi, Dalip Kumar, 2012. "Characterizing the Cereal Systems and Identifying the Potential of Conservation Agriculture in South Asia," Socioeconomics Program Working Papers 147109, CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
    7. Krishna, Vijesh V. & Veettil, Prakashan C., 2014. "Productivity and efficiency impacts of conservation tillage in northwest Indo-Gangetic Plains," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 126-138.
    8. Anonymous & Yadvinder-Singh & Erenstein, O. & Hardy, B., 2009. "Integrated Crop and Resource Management in the Rice-Wheat System of South Asia," IRRI Books, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), number 164458.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Wheat; Rice; Agricultural development; Zero tillage; Farming systems; Rotational cropping; Water use; Environmental factors; Production costs; India; Crop Production/Industries; E16; F08;

    JEL classification:

    • E16 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Social Accounting Matrix

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