Assessing the Impact of Stricter Food Safety Standards on Trade: HACCP in U.S. Seafood Trade with the Developing World
Health risks associated with seafood products prompted the introduction of mandatory HACCP in the seafood industry in the United States in 1997. This paper quantifies the trade impact of this introduction by analyzing patterns of seafood imports to the U.S. over the period 1990 to 2004. The results of a gravity model using panel data suggest that HACCP had a negative and significant impact on overall seafood imports from the top 33 developing and developed countries selling into the U.S. For developing countries, the results support the view of "standards-as-barriers" versus "standards-as-catalysts" as the negative HACCP effect was experienced by developing countries, while the effect for developed countries was positive.
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