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Gender Differentials in Returns to Education in Spain


  • Maria Arrazola
  • Jose de Hevia


In this article, rates of return to education for men and women have been estimated for the Spanish case, controlling for the biases appearing in the least squares estimation of the basic Mincerian equation. The results show that the returns for women are greater than those for men. The gender differential increases when taking into account the endogeneity of the education and the selection bias, and appears to be specially important for vocational and university studies. The results are consistent with the evolution of the demand for education in Spain in the past two decades.

Suggested Citation

  • Maria Arrazola & Jose de Hevia, 2006. "Gender Differentials in Returns to Education in Spain," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(4), pages 469-486.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:edecon:v:14:y:2006:i:4:p:469-486 DOI: 10.1080/09645290600854151

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Behrman, Jere R & Deolalikar, Anil B, 1995. "Are There Differential Returns to Schooling by Gender? The Case of Indonesian Labour Markets," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 57(1), pages 97-117, February.
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    5. M. Arrazola & J. De Hevia & M. Risueno & J. F. Sanz, 2003. "Returns to education in Spain: Some evidence on the endogeneity of schooling," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(3), pages 293-304.
    6. Uusitalo, Roope, 1999. "Return to education in Finland," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 569-580, November.
    7. Pedro Telhado Pereira & Pedro Silva Martins, 2004. "Returns to education and wage equations," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(6), pages 525-531.
    8. Elchanan Cohn & John Addison, 1998. "The Economic Returns to Lifelong Learning in OECD Countries," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(3), pages 253-307.
    9. Angel López-Nicolás & Jaume García & Pedro J. Hernández, 2001. "How wide is the gap? An investigation of gender wage differences using quantile regression," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 149-167.
    10. Card, David, 2001. "Estimating the Return to Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent Econometric Problems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(5), pages 1127-1160, September.
    11. Ezequiel Uriel Jiménez & Pilar Beneito López & Javier Ferri & María Luisa Moltó Carbonell, 1995. "Determinantes De La Demanda De La Vivienda En España," Working Papers. Serie EC 1995-12, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
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    Cited by:

    1. Olaf J. de Groot & Tilman Brück & Carlos Bozzoli, 2009. "How Many Bucks in a Bang: On the Estimation of the Economic Costs of Conflict," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 948, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    2. Murillo, Inés P. & Rahona-López, Marta & Salinas-Jiménez, Maria del Mar, 2012. "Effects of educational mismatch on private returns to education: An analysis of the Spanish case (1995–2006)," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 646-659.
    3. LILLO, Adelaida & CASADO-DÍAZ, José M., 2010. "On The Rewards To Education In Spain: Endogeneity And Regional Differences," Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 10(3).
    4. Lucia Mateos & Ines Murillo & Maria del Mar Salinas, 2014. "Desajuste educativo y competencias cognitivas: efectos sobre los salarios," Hacienda Pública Española, IEF, vol. 210(3), pages 85-108, September.
    5. Karlis Vilerts & Olegs Krasnopjorovs & Edgars Brekis, 2015. "Does Education Affect Wages During and After Economic Crisis? Evidence from Latvia (2006–2012)," Working Papers 2015/03, Latvijas Banka.
    6. Marta Rahona López & Inés P. Murillo Huertas & María del Mar Salinas Jiménez, 2010. "Incidencia del desajuste educativo en el rendimiento privado de la educación en España," Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación volume 5,in: María Jesús Mancebón-Torrubia & Domingo P. Ximénez-de-Embún & José María Gómez-Sancho & Gregorio Gim (ed.), Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 5, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 13, pages 267-284 Asociación de Economía de la Educación.
    7. Arrazola, María & de Hevia, José, 2008. "Three measures of returns to education: An illustration for the case of Spain," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 266-275, June.

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    Rate of return; demand for schooling;


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