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Military Expenditures, Income Inequality, Welfare and Political Regimes: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis


  • �nal T�ng�r
  • Adem Y. Elveren


The goal of this paper is to investigate the relationship between type of welfare regimes and military expenditures. There is a sizeable empirical literature on the development of the welfare state and on the typology of the welfare regimes. There appear to be, however, no empirical studies that examine welfare regimes with special attention to military spending. This study aims at providing a comprehensive analysis on the topic by considering several different welfare regime typologies. To do so, we use dynamic panel data analysis for 37 countries for the period of 1988-2003 by considering a wide range of control variables such as inequality measures, number of terrorist events, and size of the armed forces. We also replicate the same analyses for the political regimes. Our findings, in line with the literature, show that there is a positive relationship between income inequality and share of military expenditures in the central government budget, and that the number of terrorist events is a significant factor that affects both the level of military expenditure and inequality. Also, the paper reveals a significant negative relationship between social democratic welfare regimes and military expenditures.

Suggested Citation

  • �nal T�ng�r & Adem Y. Elveren, 2015. "Military Expenditures, Income Inequality, Welfare and Political Regimes: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(1), pages 49-74, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:defpea:v:26:y:2015:i:1:p:49-74
    DOI: 10.1080/10242694.2013.848577

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Whelan, Christopher T. & Maitre, Bertrand, 2008. "Comparing Poverty Indicators in an Enlarged EU," Papers WP263, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    2. Tim Krieger & Daniel Meierrieks, 2011. "What causes terrorism?," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 147(1), pages 3-27, April.
    3. Mark Gradstein & Branko Milanovic, 2000. "Does Liberté = Egalité? A Survey of the Empirical Evidence on the Links between Political Democracy and Income Inequality," CESifo Working Paper Series 261, CESifo.
    4. Unknown, 2009. "Indicators June-09," Amber Waves:The Economics of Food, Farming, Natural Resources, and Rural America, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, pages 1-4, June.
    5. Krishna Chaitanya Vadlamannati & K K Shakya Lahiru Pathmalal, 2008. "Exploring The Relationship Between Military Spending & Human Rights Performance In South Asia," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp941, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
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    Cited by:

    1. Muhammad Shahbaz & Reza Sherafatian-Jahromi & Muhammad Nasir Malik & Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir & Farooq Ahmed Jam, 2016. "Linkages between defense spending and income inequality in Iran," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 50(3), pages 1317-1332, May.
    2. Töngür, Ünal & Hsu, Sara & Elveren, Adem Yavuz, 2015. "Military expenditures and political regimes: Evidence from global data, 1963–2000," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 68-79.
    3. Syed Ali Raza & Muhammad Shahbaz & Sudharshan Reddy Paramati, 2017. "Dynamics of Military Expenditure and Income Inequality in Pakistan," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 131(3), pages 1035-1055, April.
    4. Ying Zhang & Xiaoxing Liu & Jiaxin Xu & Rui Wang, 2017. "Does military spending promote social welfare? A comparative analysis of the BRICS and G7 countries," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(6), pages 686-702, November.
    5. Chiung-Ju Huang & Yuan-Hong Ho, 2018. "Does Taiwan's Defense Spending Crowd out Education and Social Welfare Expenditures?," Journal of Economics and Management, College of Business, Feng Chia University, Taiwan, vol. 14(1), pages 67-82, February.
    6. Natalia Utrero-González & Jana Hromcová & Francisco J. Callado-Muñoz, 2019. "Defence Spending, Institutional Environment and Economic Growth: Case of NATO," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(5), pages 525-548, July.
    7. Sajjad F. Dizaji & Mohammad R. Farzanegan, 2020. "Democracy and Militarization in Developing Countries: A Panel Vector Autoregressive Analysis," MAGKS Papers on Economics 202035, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
    8. Ying Zhang & Rui Wang & Dongqi Yao, 2017. "Does defence expenditure have a spillover effect on income inequality? A cross-regional analysis in China," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(6), pages 731-749, November.
    9. Khalid Zaman, 2019. "Does higher military spending affect business regulatory and growth specific measures? Evidence from the group of seven (G-7) countries," Economia Politica: Journal of Analytical and Institutional Economics, Springer;Fondazione Edison, vol. 36(1), pages 323-348, April.
    10. Yemane Wolde-Rufael, 2016. "Military expenditure and income distribution in South Korea," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(4), pages 571-581, August.
    11. Adem Elveren & Valentine M. Moghadam, 2019. "The impact of militarization on gender inequality and female labor force participation," Working Papers 1307, Economic Research Forum, revised 21 Aug 2019.

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