IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/sbusec/v46y2016i1p137-167.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Does start-up financing influence start-up speed? Evidence from the panel study of entrepreneurial dynamics

Author

Listed:
  • Diana Hechavarría
  • Charles Matthews
  • Paul Reynolds

Abstract

Why are some entrepreneurs able to start a new firm more quickly than others in the venture creation process? Drawing on pecking order and agency theory, this study investigates how start-up capital structure influences the time to either new firm founding or quitting the start-up process. The temporal aspect of the start-up process is one that is often discussed, but rarely studied. Therefore, we utilize competing risk and Cox regression event history analysis on a nationally representative sample of US entrepreneurs to investigate how start-up capital structure impacts the time in gestation to particular kinds of start-up outcomes. Our findings suggest that external equity has an appreciable impact on new firm emergence over time, and that the percentage of ownership held by the founders attenuates the benefits of external equity. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Suggested Citation

  • Diana Hechavarría & Charles Matthews & Paul Reynolds, 2016. "Does start-up financing influence start-up speed? Evidence from the panel study of entrepreneurial dynamics," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 137-167, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:46:y:2016:i:1:p:137-167
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-015-9680-y
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11187-015-9680-y
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1007/s11187-015-9680-y?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Stein, Jeremy C, 1988. "Takeover Threats and Managerial Myopia," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(1), pages 61-80, February.
    2. Paul Reynolds & Niels Bosma & Erkko Autio & Steve Hunt & Natalie De Bono & Isabel Servais & Paloma Lopez-Garcia & Nancy Chin, 2005. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: Data Collection Design and Implementation 1998–2003," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 205-231, February.
    3. Elisabeth Müller & Volker Zimmermann, 2009. "The importance of equity finance for R&D activity," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 303-318, October.
    4. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
    6. Per Davidsson & Scott Gordon, 2012. "Panel studies of new venture creation: a methods-focused review and suggestions for future research," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(4), pages 853-876, November.
    7. N. Berger, Allen & F. Udell, Gregory, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: The roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 613-673, August.
    8. Oe, Akitsu & Mitsuhashi, Hitoshi, 2013. "Founders' experiences for startups' fast break-even," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 66(11), pages 2193-2201.
    9. Andy Cosh & Douglas Cumming & Alan Hughes, 2009. "Outside Enterpreneurial Capital," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(540), pages 1494-1533, October.
    10. Dorothea Schäfer & Dirk Schilder, 2008. "Smart capital in German start-ups -- an empirical analysis," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 163-183, August.
    11. de Meza, David & Southey, Clive, 1996. "The Borrower's Curse: Optimism, Finance and Entrepreneurship," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(435), pages 375-386, March.
    12. Yang, Tiantian & Aldrich, Howard E., 2012. "Out of sight but not out of mind: Why failure to account for left truncation biases research on failure rates," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 477-492.
    13. Sophie Manigart & Katleen Baeyens & Wim Van Hyfte, 2002. "The survival of venture capital backed companies," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(2), pages 103-124, April.
    14. Klaus M. Schmidt, 2003. "Convertible Securities and Venture Capital Finance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(3), pages 1139-1166, June.
    15. William Gartner & Kelly Shaver, 2012. "Nascent entrepreneurship panel studies: progress and challenges," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 659-665, October.
    16. Paul Steffens & Siri Terjesen & Per Davidsson, 2012. "Birds of a feather get lost together: new venture team composition and performance," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 727-743, October.
    17. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    18. John Bryant & James J. Dignam, 2004. "Semiparametric Models for Cumulative Incidence Functions," Biometrics, The International Biometric Society, vol. 60(1), pages 182-190, March.
    19. Jeremy C. Stein, 1989. "Efficient Capital Markets, Inefficient Firms: A Model of Myopic Corporate Behavior," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 104(4), pages 655-669.
    20. James S. Ang & Rebel A. Cole & James Wuh Lin, 2000. "Agency Costs and Ownership Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(1), pages 81-106, February.
    21. Bergemann, Dirk & Hege, Ulrich, 1998. "Venture capital financing, moral hazard, and learning," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 703-735, August.
    22. Hsu, David H., 2007. "Experienced entrepreneurial founders, organizational capital, and venture capital funding," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 722-741, June.
    23. Stephen A. Ross, 1977. "The Determination of Financial Structure: The Incentive-Signalling Approach," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 8(1), pages 23-40, Spring.
    24. Rebel A. Cole, 2013. "What Do We Know about the Capital Structure of Privately Held US Firms? Evidence from the Surveys of Small Business Finance," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 42(4), pages 777-813, December.
    25. Astebro, Thomas & Bernhardt, Irwin, 2003. "Start-up financing, owner characteristics, and survival," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 303-319.
    26. Richard L. Constand & Jerome S. Osteryoung & Donald A. Nast, 1991. "Revolving Asset-Based Lending Contracts and the Resolution of Debt-Related Agency Problems," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 1(1), pages 15-28, Spring.
    27. Frank, Murray Z. & Goyal, Vidhan K., 2003. "Testing the pecking order theory of capital structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 217-248, February.
    28. Cassar, Gavin, 2004. "The financing of business start-ups," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 261-283, March.
    29. Paul D. Reynolds & Richard T. Curtin (ed.), 2011. "New Business Creation," International Studies in Entrepreneurship, Springer, number 978-1-4419-7536-2, December.
    30. Brush, Candida G. & Manolova, Tatiana S. & Edelman, Linda F., 2008. "Properties of emerging organizations: An empirical test," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 547-566, September.
    31. Saul Estrin & Jan Hanousek & Evzen Kocenda & Jan Svejnar, 2009. "The Effects of Privatization and Ownership in Transition Economies," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(3), pages 699-728, September.
    32. Marianne P. Bitler & Tobias J. Moskowitz & Annette Vissing‐Jørgensen, 2005. "Testing Agency Theory with Entrepreneur Effort and Wealth," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(2), pages 539-576, April.
    33. Graham C. Hall & Patrick J. Hutchinson & Nicos Michaelas, 2004. "Determinants of the Capital Structures of European SMEs," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(5-6), pages 711-728.
    34. Winton, Andrew & Yerramilli, Vijay, 2008. "Entrepreneurial finance: Banks versus venture capital," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 51-79, April.
    35. Jianwen Liao & William Gartner, 2006. "The Effects of Pre-venture Plan Timing and Perceived Environmental Uncertainty on the Persistence of Emerging Firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 23-40, August.
    36. Sapienza, Harry J. & Manigart, Sophie & Vermeir, Wim, 1996. "Venture capitalist governance and value added in four countries," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(6), pages 439-469, November.
    37. Delmar, Frederic & Shane, Scott, 2004. "Legitimating first: organizing activities and the survival of new ventures," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 385-410, May.
    38. José González-Pernía & Iñaki Peña-Legazkue & Ferran Vendrell-Herrero, 2012. "Innovation, entrepreneurial activity and competitiveness at a sub-national level," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 561-574, October.
    39. Mohan V. Tatikonda & Siri A. Terjesen & Pankaj C. Patel & Vinit Parida, 2013. "The Role of Operational Capabilities in Enhancing New Venture Survival: A Longitudinal Study," Production and Operations Management, Production and Operations Management Society, vol. 22(6), pages 1401-1415, November.
    40. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    41. Paul D. Reynolds & Nancy M. Carter & William B. Gartner & Patricia G. Greene, 2004. "The Prevalence of Nascent Entrepreneurs in the United States: Evidence from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 263-284, November.
    42. Reynolds, Paul & Miller, Brenda, 1992. "New firm gestation: Conception, birth, and implications for research," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 405-417, September.
    43. Gompers, Paul A, 1995. "Optimal Investment, Monitoring, and the Staging of Venture Capital," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1461-1489, December.
    44. William Gartner & Casey Frid & John Alexander, 2012. "Financing the emerging firm," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 745-761, October.
    45. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    46. Townsend, David M. & Busenitz, Lowell W. & Arthurs, Jonathan D., 2010. "To start or not to start: Outcome and ability expectations in the decision to start a new venture," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 192-202, March.
    47. Myers, Stewart C., 1984. "Capital structure puzzle," Working papers 1548-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    48. Dimo Dimov, 2010. "Nascent Entrepreneurs and Venture Emergence: Opportunity Confidence, Human Capital, and Early Planning," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(6), pages 1123-1153, September.
    49. Masako Ueda, 2004. "Banks versus Venture Capital: Project Evaluation, Screening, and Expropriation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 601-621, April.
    50. Paul Gompers & Josh Lerner, 2001. "The Venture Capital Revolution," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 145-168, Spring.
    51. Myers, Stewart C, 1984. "The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-592, July.
    52. Kim, Phillip H. & Longest, Kyle C. & Lippmann, Stephen, 2015. "The tortoise versus the hare: Progress and business viability differences between conventional and leisure-based founders," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 185-204.
    53. de Bettignies, Jean-Etienne & Brander, James A., 2007. "Financing entrepreneurship: Bank finance versus venture capital," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 808-832, November.
    54. Baron, Robert A., 1998. "Cognitive mechanisms in entrepreneurship: why and when enterpreneurs think differently than other people," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 275-294, July.
    55. Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    56. Alicia M. Robb & David T. Robinson, 2014. "The Capital Structure Decisions of New Firms," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(1), pages 153-179, January.
    57. George A. Akerlof, 1970. "The Market for "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 84(3), pages 488-500.
    58. James S. Ang, 1991. "Small Business Uniqueness and the Theory of Financial Management," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 1(1), pages 1-13, Spring.
    59. Paul Reynolds, 2009. "Screening item effects in estimating the prevalence of nascent entrepreneurs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 151-163, August.
    60. Denis, David J., 2004. "Entrepreneurial finance: an overview of the issues and evidence," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 301-326, March.
    61. Vincenzo Coviello & May Boggess, 2004. "Cumulative incidence estimation in the presence of competing risks," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 4(2), pages 103-112, June.
    62. Simon C. Parker & Yacine Belghitar, 2006. "What Happens to Nascent Entrepreneurs? An Econometric Analysis of the PSED," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 81-101, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Giancarlo Giudici & Massimiliano Guerini & Cristina Rossi-Lamastra, 2018. "Reward-based crowdfunding of entrepreneurial projects: the effect of local altruism and localized social capital on proponents’ success," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 50(2), pages 307-324, February.
    2. Nadine Levratto & Luc Tessier & Cecile Fonrouge, 2018. "Business performance and angels presence: a fresh look from France 2008–2011," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 50(2), pages 339-356, February.
    3. Chien-Nan Chen & Chengli Tien & Bernard Gan, 2019. "The postentry performance of business groups’ new venture affiliates," Australian Journal of Management, Australian School of Business, vol. 44(2), pages 325-343, May.
    4. Cacciolatti, Luca & Rosli, Ainurul & Ruiz-Alba, José L. & Chang, Jane, 2020. "Strategic alliances and firm performance in startups with a social mission," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 106-117.
    5. Helena Smolová & Pavla Kubová & Hana Urbancová, 2018. "Success Factors for Start-ups Related to Agriculture, Food and Nutrition and Their Relevance to Education," Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, Mendel University Press, vol. 66(3), pages 791-801.
    6. Patel, Pankaj C. & João Guedes, Maria & Pagano, Michael S. & Olson, Gerard T., 2020. "Industry profitability matters: The value of sustainable growth rate and distance from bankruptcy as enablers of venture survival," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 80-92.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Diana M. Hechavarría & Charles H. Matthews & Paul D. Reynolds, 2016. "Does start-up financing influence start-up speed? Evidence from the panel study of entrepreneurial dynamics," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 137-167, January.
    2. Walthoff-Borm, Xavier & Schwienbacher, Armin & Vanacker, Tom, 2018. "Equity crowdfunding: First resort or last resort?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 513-533.
    3. Andrea Mina & Henry Lahr, 2018. "The pecking order of innovation finance," LEM Papers Series 2018/31, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    4. Vaznyte, Egle & Andries, Petra, 2019. "Entrepreneurial orientation and start-ups' external financing," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 439-458.
    5. Siqueira, Ana Cristina O. & Guenster, Nadja & Vanacker, Tom & Crucke, Saskia, 2018. "A longitudinal comparison of capital structure between young for-profit social and commercial enterprises," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 225-240.
    6. Arturo Haro-de-Rosario & María del Carmen Caba-Pérez & Leonardo Cazorla-Papis, 2016. "The impact of venture capital on investee companies: evidence from Spain," Review of Managerial Science, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 577-600, July.
    7. Ciarán mac an Bhaird & Brian Lucey, 2010. "Determinants of capital structure in Irish SMEs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 357-375, October.
    8. Daniel Blaseg & Douglas Cumming & Michael Koetter, 2021. "Equity Crowdfunding: High-Quality or Low-Quality Entrepreneurs?," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 45(3), pages 505-530, May.
    9. Bergner, Sören Martin & Bräutigam, Rainer & Evers, Maria Theresia & Spengel, Christoph, 2017. "The use of SME tax incentives in the European Union," ZEW Discussion Papers 17-006, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    10. Magnus Schückes & Tobias Gutmann, 2021. "Why do startups pursue initial coin offerings (ICOs)? The role of economic drivers and social identity on funding choice," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 57(2), pages 1027-1052, August.
    11. Valérie Revest & Alessandro Sapio, 2012. "Financing technology-based small firms in Europe: what do we know?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 179-205, July.
    12. Andy Cosh & Douglas Cumming & Alan Hughes, 2009. "Outside Enterpreneurial Capital," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(540), pages 1494-1533, October.
    13. Romain FOGO PAWO, 2020. "déterminants objectifs de l’endettement en contexte de rationnement du crédit," Journal of Academic Finance, RED research unit, university of Gabes, Tunisia, vol. 11(2), pages 280-292, December.
    14. James Ang & Rebel Cole & Daniel Lawson, 2010. "The Role of Owner in Capital Structure Decisions: An Analysis of Single-Owner Corporations," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 14(3), pages 1-36, Fall.
    15. Tom Vanacker & Sophie Manigart, 2010. "Pecking order and debt capacity considerations for high-growth companies seeking financing," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 53-69, July.
    16. Curtiss, Jarmila, 2012. "Determinants of Financial Capital Use: Review of theories and implications for rural businesses," Working papers 122846, Factor Markets, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    17. Romain FOGO PAWO, 2020. "les déterminants objectifs de l’endettement en contexte de rationnement du crédit," Journal of Academic Finance, RED research unit, university of Gabes, Tunisia, vol. 11(2), pages 280-292, December.
    18. Olivier Butzbach & Domenico Sarno, 2019. "To What Extent Do Regional Effects Influence Firms’ Capital Structure? The Case of Southern Italian SMEs’," International Journal of Financial Studies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(1), pages 1-20, January.
    19. Curtiss, Jarmila, 2012. "Determinants of Financial Capital Use: Review of theories and implications for rural businesses," Factor Markets Working Papers 123, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    20. Andres, Christian & Cumming, Douglas & Karabiber, Timur & Schweizer, Denis, 2014. "Do markets anticipate capital structure decisions? — Feedback effects in equity liquidity," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 133-156.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Start-up outcomes; Capital structure; Nascent entrepreneurship; New firm founding; Start-up financing; Event history analysis; Panel study of entrepreneurial dynamics; M10; M13; G32; M21;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • M10 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - General
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • M21 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Economics - - - Business Economics

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:46:y:2016:i:1:p:137-167. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.