Out of sight but not out of mind: Why failure to account for left truncation biases research on failure rates
We note at least three major issues in entrepreneurship theory that can be clarified by studying the survival chances of new ventures: the extent to which entrepreneurs are so constrained by initial founding conditions that they are unable to learn; the degree to which heterogeneity and innovative capabilities are lost due to the failure of new ventures; and the imprinting effects of new ventures' early days on their subsequent development. However, previous research on these issues has been inconclusive because of problems in research design and data analysis. In this paper, we shed light on new venture failure rates by assessing the validity and generalizability of previous findings. We argue that research using registration data to study new ventures is very likely to generate biased results and that research attempting to track new ventures from a very early stage can still suffer from selection bias due to left truncation. Using a sample of new ventures from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics II, we provide evidence for the extent of such biases. We offer a statistical solution to left truncation that can be easily applied in widely used statistical programs.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Martinez Martha A. & Yang Tiantian & Aldrich Howard E., 2011. "Entrepreneurship as an Evolutionary Process: Research Progress and Challenges," Entrepreneurship Research Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 1(1), pages 1-28, January.
- Delmar, Frederic & Shane, Scott, 2004. "Legitimating first: organizing activities and the survival of new ventures," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 385-410, May.
- Audretsch, David B & Mahmood, Talat, 1995. "New Firm Survival: New Results Using a Hazard Function," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 77(1), pages 97-103, February.
- Lichtenstein, Benyamin B. & Carter, Nancy M. & Dooley, Kevin J. & Gartner, William B., 2007. "Complexity dynamics of nascent entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 236-261, March.
- Timothy Bates, 2002.
"Analysis of Young Small Firms That Have Closed: Delineating Successful from Unsuccessful Closures,"
02-24, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Bates, Timothy, 2005. "Analysis of young, small firms that have closed: delineating successful from unsuccessful closures," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 343-358, May.
- Audretsch, David B, 1991. "New-Firm Survival and the Technological Regime," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(3), pages 441-50, August.
- Brush, Candida G. & Manolova, Tatiana S. & Edelman, Linda F., 2008. "Properties of emerging organizations: An empirical test," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 547-566, September.
- Douglas Holtz-Eakin & David Joulfaian & Harvey Rosen, 1993.
"Sticking It Out: Entrepreneurial Survival and Liquidity Constraints,"
698, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Joulfaian, David & Rosen, Harvey S, 1994. "Sticking It Out: Entrepreneurial Survival and Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(1), pages 53-75, February.
- Douglas Holtz-Eakin & David Joulfaian & Harvey S. Rosen, 1993. "Sticking it Out: Entrepreneurial Survival and Liquidity Constraints," NBER Working Papers 4494, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Wiklund, Johan & Baker, Ted & Shepherd, Dean, 2010. "The age-effect of financial indicators as buffers against the liability of newness," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 423-437, July.
- Reynolds, Paul D., 2007. "New Firm Creation in the United States A PSED I Overview," Foundations and Trends(R) in Entrepreneurship, now publishers, vol. 3(1), pages 1-150, February.
- Reynolds, Paul & Miller, Brenda, 1992. "New firm gestation: Conception, birth, and implications for research," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 405-417, September.
- Wennberg, Karl & Wiklund, Johan & DeTienne, Dawn R. & Cardon, Melissa S., 2010.
"Reconceptualizing entrepreneurial exit: Divergent exit routes and their drivers,"
Journal of Business Venturing,
Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 361-375, July.
- Wennberg, Karl & Wiklund, Johan & DeTienne, Dawn & Cardon, Melissa, 2009. "Reconceptualizing Entrepreneurial Exit: Divergent Exit Routes and Their Drivers," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Business Administration 2009:10, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Beckman, Christine M. & Burton, M. Diane & O'Reilly, Charles, 2007. "Early teams: The impact of team demography on VC financing and going public," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 147-173, March.
- Van de Ven, Andrew H. & Engleman, Rhonda M., 2004. "Event- and outcome-driven explanations of entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 343-358, May.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbvent:v:27:y:2012:i:4:p:477-492. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.