Financing the emerging firm
This study explores the financing choices of 1,214 nascent entrepreneurs in the PSED II dataset. Funding sources are divided into two broad categories: personal and external. We develop a set of hypotheses about the kinds of firm and nascent entrepreneur characteristics that would likely influence which categories of financial resources are used, and the amounts acquired. The majority of financing (57% of all financing) for emerging ventures comes from the personal contributions of its founders, who contributed a median amount of $5,500 per respondent. Firms that more likely to acquire external funding were projected to have higher levels of revenue, were incorporated, and were legally registered. Nascent entrepreneurs with higher levels of education and net worth were significantly more likely to acquire external funding. Results from analyses are presented and discussed. Implications of our findings are provided and suggestions for future research are offered. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2012
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Astebro, Thomas & Bernhardt, Irwin, 2003. "Start-up financing, owner characteristics, and survival," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 303-319.
- Parker,Simon C., 2004.
"The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521828130, November.
- Parker,Simon C., 2006. "The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521030632, November.
- Frank, Murray Z. & Goyal, Vidhan K., 2003. "Testing the pecking order theory of capital structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 217-248, February.
- Titman, Sheridan & Wessels, Roberto, 1988. " The Determinants of Capital Structure Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(1), pages 1-19, March.
- Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy, 2001. "Start-Up Capital: "Does Gender Matter?"," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 329-45, June.
- Michaelas, Nicos & Chittenden, Francis & Poutziouris, Panikkos, 1999. "Financial Policy and Capital Structure Choice in U.K. SMEs: Empirical Evidence from Company Panel Data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 12(2), pages 113-30, March.
- David B. Audretsch & Prashanth Mahagaonkar & Werner Bönte, 2009.
"Financial Signaling by Innovative Nascent Entrepreneurs,"
Schumpeter Discussion Papers
sdp09001, Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, University Library.
- David B. Audretsch & Werner Bönte & Prashanth Mahagaonkar, 2009. "Financial Signaling by Innovative Nascent Entrepreneurs," Jena Economic Research Papers 2009-012, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
- Audretsch, David B & Bönte, Werner & Mahagaonkar, Prashanth, 2009. "Financial Signalling by Innovative Nascent Entrepreneurs," CEPR Discussion Papers 7165, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Eugene F. Fama & Kenneth R. French, .
"Testing Tradeoff and Pecking Order Predictions about Dividends and Debt.”,"
CRSP working papers
506, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
- Eugene F. Fama, 2002. "Testing Trade-Off and Pecking Order Predictions About Dividends and Debt," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(1), pages 1-33, March.
- Myers, Stewart C, 1984. " The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-92, July.
- Avery, Robert B. & Bostic, Raphael W. & Samolyk, Katherine A., 1998. "The role of personal wealth in small business finance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 1019-1061, August.
- Harris, Milton & Raviv, Artur, 1991. " The Theory of Capital Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(1), pages 297-355, March.
- Bates, Timothy, 1990. "Entrepreneur Human Capital Inputs and Small Business Longevity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(4), pages 551-59, November.
- Myers, Stewart C., 1984. "Capital structure puzzle," Working papers 1548-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Cassar, Gavin, 2004. "The financing of business start-ups," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 261-283, March.
- N. Berger, Allen & F. Udell, Gregory, 1998.
"The economics of small business finance: The roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle,"
Journal of Banking & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 613-673, August.
- Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: the roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1998-15, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Cressy, Robert, 1996. "Are Business Startups Debt-Rationed?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(438), pages 1253-70, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:39:y:2012:i:3:p:745-761. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla)or (Rebekah McClure)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.