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Financing the emerging firm

Author

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  • William Gartner

    ()

  • Casey Frid

    ()

  • John Alexander

    ()

Abstract

This study explores the financing choices of 1,214 nascent entrepreneurs in the PSED II dataset. Funding sources are divided into two broad categories: personal and external. We develop a set of hypotheses about the kinds of firm and nascent entrepreneur characteristics that would likely influence which categories of financial resources are used, and the amounts acquired. The majority of financing (57% of all financing) for emerging ventures comes from the personal contributions of its founders, who contributed a median amount of $5,500 per respondent. Firms that more likely to acquire external funding were projected to have higher levels of revenue, were incorporated, and were legally registered. Nascent entrepreneurs with higher levels of education and net worth were significantly more likely to acquire external funding. Results from analyses are presented and discussed. Implications of our findings are provided and suggestions for future research are offered. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2012

Suggested Citation

  • William Gartner & Casey Frid & John Alexander, 2012. "Financing the emerging firm," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 745-761, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:39:y:2012:i:3:p:745-761
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-011-9359-y
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Diana Hechavarría & Charles Matthews & Paul Reynolds, 2016. "Does start-up financing influence start-up speed? Evidence from the panel study of entrepreneurial dynamics," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 137-167, January.
    2. John Stayton & Vincent Mangematin, 2016. "Startup time, innovation and organizational emergence: A study of USA-based international technology ventures," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 373-409, September.
    3. Casey J. Frid & David M. Wyman & Bentley Coffey, 2016. "Effects of wealth inequality on entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(4), pages 895-920, December.
    4. Diana M. Hechavarría & Charles H. Matthews & Paul D. Reynolds, 2016. "Does start-up financing influence start-up speed? Evidence from the panel study of entrepreneurial dynamics," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 137-167, January.
    5. Bjuggren, Per-Olof & Elmoznino Laufer, Michel, 2015. "Startups, Financing and Geography– Findings from a survey," Ratio Working Papers 255, The Ratio Institute.
    6. Anosisye M. Kesale, 2017. "Barriers Facing Startup Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) In Accessing External Capital in Tanzania," International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, vol. 7(3), pages 55-72, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Nascent entrepreneur; Capital structure; Finance; Start-up; PSED; G32; L26; M13;

    JEL classification:

    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups

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