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Where Does the Money Come From? The Financing of Small Entrepreneurial Enterprises

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  • Zsuzsanna Fluck
  • Douglas Holtz-Eakin
  • Harvey S. Rosen

Abstract

Using data from the Wisconsin Entrepreneurial Climate Study, we study the sources of firms' finance during the very early stages of their lives. Our focus is the evolution of the mix of financial capital from 'insiders' and 'outsiders' as firms age. We find that at the beginning of firms' life cycles, the proportion of funds form internal sources increases with age, while the proportion from banks, venture capitalists, and private investors declines. There is also evidence that these patterns eventually reverse themselves, with the proportion of insider finance ultimately declining and the proportion of outsider finance increasing with age. We argue that these findings are consistent with elements of both reputation-based and monopoly-lender theories of firm finance.

Suggested Citation

  • Zsuzsanna Fluck & Douglas Holtz-Eakin & Harvey S. Rosen, 1998. "Where Does the Money Come From? The Financing of Small Entrepreneurial Enterprises," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-038, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  • Handle: RePEc:fth:nystfi:98-038
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    Cited by:

    1. Ramana Nanda, 2008. "Cost of External Finance and Selection into Entrepreneurship," Harvard Business School Working Papers 08-047, Harvard Business School.
    2. Diana Marina Del COlle, & Paolo Finaldi Russo & Andrea Generale, 2006. "The Causes and Consequences of Venture Capital Financing. An Analysis based on a Sample of Italian Firms," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 584, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    3. Kerr, William R. & Nanda, Ramana, 2009. "Democratizing entry: Banking deregulations, financing constraints, and entrepreneurship," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1), pages 124-149, October.
    4. Canales, Rodrigo & Nanda, Ramana, 2012. "A darker side to decentralized banks: Market power and credit rationing in SME lending," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(2), pages 353-366.
    5. Astrid Romain & Ant Bozkaya & Bruno Van Pottelsberghe, 2003. "Surveying technology-based small firms: a perspective from Belgium," Working Papers CEB 04-020.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    6. Sophie Manigart & Katleen Baeyens & Ilse Verschueren, 2002. "Financing and investment interdependencies in unquoted belgian compagnies: the role of venture capital," Working Paper Research 29, National Bank of Belgium.
    7. A. Bozkaya & B. Van Pottelsberghe De La Potterie, 2008. "Who Funds Technology-Based Small Firms? Evidence From Belgium," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1-2), pages 97-122.
    8. Ciarán mac an Bhaird & Brian Lucey, 2010. "Determinants of capital structure in Irish SMEs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 357-375, October.
    9. Curtiss, Jarmila, 2012. "Determinants of Financial Capital Use: Review of theories and implications for rural businesses," Factor Markets Working Papers 123, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    10. Zsuzsanna Fluck, 1999. "Contingent Control Rights and Managerial Incentives: The Design of Long-term Debt," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 99-070, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
    11. F. Javier Sánchez Vidal & Juan Francisco Martín Ugedo, 2008. "Edad y tamaño empresarial y ciclo de vida financiero," Working Papers. Serie EC 2008-12, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    12. Maretno A. Harjoto & John K. Paglia, 2011. "Funding Continuum for Private Business Owners: Evidence from the Pepperdine Private Capital Markets Project Survey," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 15(2), pages 1-22, Winter.

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