IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/taf/ecinnt/v17y2008i1-2p97-122.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Who Funds Technology-Based Small Firms? Evidence From Belgium

Author

Listed:
  • A. Bozkaya
  • B. Van Pottelsberghe De La Potterie

Abstract

Using an original survey sample of 103 unquoted Belgian technology-based small firms (TBSFs), we examine the capital structure of start-up companies during their consecutive development stages. We find that internal funds, either alone as personal savings or in combination with family and friends, to be the primary source of financing. Personal funds of the founders are used to finance the start of 82% of TBSFs. Commercial bank and government funds are the most important sources of external finance for TBSFs subsequent to start-up. Most founders agreed that business angels and venture capitalists play a greater role at later stages. However, once granted, more substantial amounts of funding come from venture capitalists. There is also evidence that suggests a change in the mix of internal and external sources of finance. Finally, our findings based on founders' scores in raising external funds suggest a call for urgent policy action to improve access to and availability of early-stage entrepreneurial finance in Belgium. We discuss our findings in light of the capital structure of small firms relating to TBSFs.

Suggested Citation

  • A. Bozkaya & B. Van Pottelsberghe De La Potterie, 2008. "Who Funds Technology-Based Small Firms? Evidence From Belgium," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1-2), pages 97-122.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:ecinnt:v:17:y:2008:i:1-2:p:97-122
    DOI: 10.1080/10438590701279466
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10438590701279466
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Rosen, Harvey S., 1998. "The future of entrepreneurial finance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 1105-1107, August.
    2. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
    4. N. Berger, Allen & F. Udell, Gregory, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: The roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 613-673, August.
    5. Mike Wright, 1998. "Venture Capital and Private Equity: A Review and Synthesis," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(5&6), pages 521-570.
    6. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    7. Josh Lerner, 2002. "When Bureaucrats Meet Entrepreneurs: The Design of Effective "Public Venture Capital" Programmes," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(477), pages 73-84, February.
    8. Zsuzsanna Fluck & Douglas Holtz-Eakin & Harvey S. Rosen, 1998. "Where Does the Money Come From? The Financing of Small Entrepreneurial Enterprises," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-038, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
    9. Thomas Hellmann & Manju Puri, 2002. "Venture Capital and the Professionalization of Start-Up Firms: Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 169-197, February.
    10. Giudici, Giancarlo & Paleari, Stefano, 2000. "The Provision of Finance to Innovation: A Survey Conducted among Italian Technology-Based Small Firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 37-53, February.
    11. Leland, Hayne E & Pyle, David H, 1977. "Informational Asymmetries, Financial Structure, and Financial Intermediation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 371-387, May.
    12. Manigart, Sophie & Struyf, Carol, 1997. "Financing High Technology Startups in Belgium: An Explorative Study," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 125-135, April.
    13. Mayer, Colin, 2002. "Financing the New Economy: financial institutions and corporate governance," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 311-326, June.
    14. Rajan, Raghuram G, 1992. " Insiders and Outsiders: The Choice between Informed and Arm's-Length Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1367-1400, September.
    15. Audretsch, David B & Vivarelli, Marco, 1996. "Firms Size and R&D Spillovers: Evidence from Italy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 249-258, June.
    16. Diamond, Douglas W, 1991. "Monitoring and Reputation: The Choice between Bank Loans and Directly Placed Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(4), pages 689-721, August.
    17. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    18. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    19. Myers, Stewart C., 1984. "Capital structure puzzle," Working papers 1548-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    20. Lerner, Josh, 1999. "The Government as Venture Capitalist: The Long-Run Impact of the SBIR Program," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(3), pages 285-318, July.
    21. Astrid Romain & Ant Bozkaya & Bruno Van Pottelsberghe, 2003. "Surveying technology-based small firms: a perspective from Belgium," Working Papers CEB 04-020.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    22. Myers, Stewart C, 1984. " The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-592, July.
    23. Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    24. George A. Akerlof, 1970. "The Market for "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 84(3), pages 488-500.
    25. Freear, John & Sohl, Jeffrey E. & Wetzel, William Jr., 1994. "Angels and non-angels: Are there differences?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 109-123, March.
    26. Thomas Hatzichronoglou, 1997. "Revision of the High-Technology Sector and Product Classification," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 1997/2, OECD Publishing.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Susan Coleman & Alicia M. Robb, 2011. "Financing Strategies of New Technology-based Firms," Review of Economics & Finance, Better Advances Press, Canada, vol. 1, pages 01-18, August.
    2. Joël Ludvigsen, 2009. "Decision time in Belgium: an experiment as to how business angels evaluate investment opportunities," Working Papers CEB 09-037.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    3. Hoewer, Daniel & Schmidt, Tobias & Sofka, Wolfgang, 2011. "An information economics perspective on main bank relationships and firm R&D," ZEW Discussion Papers 11-055, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    4. repec:eco:journ1:2018-01-25 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Cristiano Antonelli & Morris Teubal, 2010. "Venture Capitalism as a Mechanism for Knowledge Governance," Chapters,in: The Capitalization of Knowledge, chapter 3 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    6. Antonelli, Cristiano & Teubal, Morris, 2008. "Venture Capital as a Mechanism for Knowledge Governance: New Markets and Innovation-Led Economic Growth," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis LEI & BRICK - Laboratory of Economics of Innovation "Franco Momigliano", Bureau of Research in Innovation, Complexity and Knowledge, Collegio 200805, University of Turin.
    7. Brown, Martin & Degryse, Hans & Höwer, Daniel & Penas, María Fabiana, 2012. "How do banks screen innovative firms? Evidence from start-up panel data," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-032, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    8. Michael Peneder, 2009. "The impact of venture capital on innovation behaviour and firm growth," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 83-107, November.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Venture capital; Technology-based firms; Ownership structure;

    JEL classification:

    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • M21 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Economics - - - Business Economics

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:ecinnt:v:17:y:2008:i:1-2:p:97-122. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Longhurst). General contact details of provider: http://www.tandfonline.com/GEIN20 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.