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Sexual orientation and labor market outcomes

Author

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  • Nick Drydakis

    (Anglia Ruskin University, UK, and IZA, Germany)

Abstract

Studies from countries with laws against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation suggest that gay and lesbian employees report more incidents of harassment and are more likely to report experiencing unfair treatment in the labor market than are heterosexual employees. Gay men are found to earn less than comparably skilled and experienced heterosexual men. For lesbians, the patterns are ambiguous: in some countries they have been found to earn less than their heterosexual counterparts, while in others they earn the same or more. Both gay men and lesbians tend to be less satisfied with their jobs than their heterosexual counterparts.

Suggested Citation

  • Nick Drydakis, 2014. "Sexual orientation and labor market outcomes," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 111-111, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izawol:journl:y:2014:n:111
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Marieka Klawitter, 2011. "Multilevel analysis of the effects of antidiscrimination policies on earnings by sexual orientation," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(2), pages 334-358, March.
    2. Drydakis, Nick, 2009. "Sexual orientation discrimination in the labour market," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 364-372, August.
    3. Nick Drydakis, 2014. "Sexual orientation discrimination in the Cypriot labour market. Distastes or uncertainty?," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 35(5), pages 720-744, July.
    4. Nick Drydakis, 2015. "Effect of Sexual Orientation on Job Satisfaction: Evidence from Greece," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(1), pages 162-187, January.
    5. Ali M. Ahmed & Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2013. "Are Gay Men and Lesbians Discriminated against in the Hiring Process?," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 565-585, January.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Nick Drydakis, 2019. "School‐Age Bullying, Workplace Bullying and Job Satisfaction: Experiences of LGB People in Britain," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 87(4), pages 455-488, July.
    2. Drydakis, Nick & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2020. "Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Labour Market Outcomes: New Patterns and Insights," GLO Discussion Paper Series 627, Global Labor Organization (GLO).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    sexual orientation; access to vacancies; earnings; job satisfaction; bullying;

    JEL classification:

    • J7 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J42 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Monopsony; Segmented Labor Markets
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
    • J82 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Standards - - - Labor Force Composition

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