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Empirical Panel Analysis of Non-performing Loans in the Czech Republic. What are their Determinants and How Strong is their Impact on the Real Economy?


  • Mihail Petkovski

    (Faculty of Economics, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia)

  • Jordan Kjosevski

    () (MoneyMax Financial, Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia)

  • Kiril Jovanovski

    (Faculty of Economics, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia)


This paper examines the link between determinants of non-performing loans (NPLs) and their macroeconomic impact in the Czech Republic, using two complementary approaches. First, we explore macroeconomic and bank-specific determinants of NPLs for a panel of 22 banks from the Czech Republic, using annual data for the period 2005-2016.For our analysis, we apply difference Generalised Method of Moments. Empirical results provide evidence that the most important macroeconomic factors influencing NPLs are GDP growth, inflation, and unemployment. As for the bank-specific determinants, we found that return on assets, return on equity growth of gross loans, and equity to total assets ratio, size of the banks and foreign ownership have an impact on the amount of NPLs. Second, we investigate the feedback between NPLs and its macroeconomic determinants. The results suggest that the real economy responds to NPLs, and the analysis also indicates that there are strong feedback effects from macroeconomic conditions, such as domestic credit to private sector, GDP growth, unemployment, and inflation, to NPLs.

Suggested Citation

  • Mihail Petkovski & Jordan Kjosevski & Kiril Jovanovski, 2018. "Empirical Panel Analysis of Non-performing Loans in the Czech Republic. What are their Determinants and How Strong is their Impact on the Real Economy?," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 68(5), pages 460-490, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:fau:fauart:v:68:y:2018:i:5:p:460-490

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    non-performing loans; macroeconomic determinants; bank-specific determinants; Czech; Generalised Method of Moments;

    JEL classification:

    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages


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