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Makroekonomiczne czynniki ryzyka kredytowego w sektorze bankowym w Polsce

Listed author(s):
  • Piotr Wdowiński

Celem artykułu jest przegląd głównych czynników mikro- i makroekonomicznych wpływających na ryzyko kredytowe oraz analiza modelu ryzyka kredytowego w sektorze bankowym w Polsce. Ryzyko kredytowe jest jednym z najważniejszych rodzajów ryzyka jakie podejmuje się w sektorze bankowym. Zarządzanie tym ryzykiem powinno podlegać ścisłej kontroli zarówno ze strony właścicieli, jak i poprzez działania o charakterze regulacyjno­‑nadzorczym. Na podstawie kwartalnych danych statystycznych w okresie od I kw. 1997 r. do II kw. 2013 r. oszacowano model korekty błędem dla zagregowanego ryzyka kredytowego w Polsce, mierzonego za pomocą odsetka kredytów z utratą wartości w kredytach ogółem. Za najważniejsze czynniki makroekonomiczne przyjęto PKB, stopę procentową, stopę bezrobocia oraz kurs walutowy. Przeprowadzono symulację ex post w latach 2008-2012 opierając się na scenariuszu makroekonomicznym obrazującym głęboką recesję gospodarczą w Polsce. Pokazano, że jego realizacja mogłaby spowodować wyraźny wzrost ryzyka kredytowego zarówno w odniesieniu do przedsiębiorstw niefinansowych, jak i gospodarstw domowych. W wyniku materializacji tego scenariusza sektor bankowy mógłby zostać dotknięty znacznym spadkiem aktywności i pogorszeniem się wyniku finansowego. Oznaczałoby to mniejsze możliwości inwestycyjne banków i pogorszenie się ich pozycji kapitałowej, co zmniejszyłoby ich zdolność do absorpcji strat. Sytuacja taka mogłaby doprowadzić do efektów „drugiej rundy” polegających na ograniczeniu finansowania sfery realnej gospodarki wskutek wzrostu ryzyka kredytowego i wzrostu marż kredytowych.

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File URL: http://gospodarkanarodowa.sgh.waw.pl/p/gospodarka_narodowa_2014_04_03.pdf
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Article provided by Warsaw School of Economics in its journal Gospodarka Narodowa.

Volume (Year): (2014)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 55-77

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Handle: RePEc:sgh:gosnar:y:2014:i:4:p:55-77
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  1. Castro, Vítor, 2013. "Macroeconomic determinants of the credit risk in the banking system: The case of the GIPSI," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 672-683.
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  13. repec:onb:oenbwp:y:2002:i:3:b:3 is not listed on IDEAS
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  15. Mwanza Nkusu, 2011. "Nonperforming Loans and Macrofinancial Vulnerabilities in Advanced Economies," IMF Working Papers 11/161, International Monetary Fund.
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  18. Raphael A Espinoza & Ananthakrishnan Prasad, 2010. "Nonperforming Loans in the GCC Banking System and their Macroeconomic Effects," IMF Working Papers 10/224, International Monetary Fund.
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