IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/riibaf/v39y2017ipbp920-939.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The effects of activity and geographic diversification on performance: Evidence from French financial institutions

Author

Listed:
  • Jouida, Sameh
  • Bouzgarrou, Houssam
  • Hellara, Slaheddine

Abstract

Our paper studies the impact of activity and geographic diversification on financial institution's performance. These diversification strategies are complementary in generating performance and may provide important implications. Moreover, we investigate the interaction between these two strategies. Our dataset comprises 4532 years observations over the period of 2002 to 2012 and covers 412 French financial institutions. We find a negative relationship between diversification and performance. However, this relationship is significantly positive when institutions implement a dual diversification strategy. In this paper, we propose a classification of French financial institutions. For generalists’ banks and cooperative banks, we find similar results to those of the entire sample. Furthermore, for specialized financial institutions, the relationship is positive and significant. Our findings are robust to the potential endogeneity problem and to measures of diversification and performance.

Suggested Citation

  • Jouida, Sameh & Bouzgarrou, Houssam & Hellara, Slaheddine, 2017. "The effects of activity and geographic diversification on performance: Evidence from French financial institutions," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(PB), pages 920-939.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:riibaf:v:39:y:2017:i:pb:p:920-939
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ribaf.2016.01.028
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0275531916300289
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.ribaf.2016.01.028?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Laeven, Luc & Levine, Ross, 2007. "Is there a diversification discount in financial conglomerates?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 331-367, August.
    2. Kemper, Kris & Lee, Allissa & Simkins, Betty J., 2012. "Diversification revisited," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 304-316.
    3. Chang, Shao-Chi & Wang, Chi-Feng, 2007. "The effect of product diversification strategies on the relationship between international diversification and firm performance," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 61-79, March.
    4. Sawada, Michiru, 2013. "How does the stock market value bank diversification? Empirical evidence from Japanese banks," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 40-61.
    5. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    6. Hong Liu & John Wilson, 2010. "The profitability of banks in Japan," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(24), pages 1851-1866.
    7. Athanasoglou, Panayiotis P. & Brissimis, Sophocles N. & Delis, Matthaios D., 2008. "Bank-specific, industry-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 121-136, April.
    8. Orlov, Vitaly & Äijö, Janne, 2015. "Benefits of wavelet-based carry trade diversification," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 17-32.
    9. Yakov Amihud & Baruch Lev, 1981. "Risk Reduction as a Managerial Motive for Conglomerate Mergers," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 12(2), pages 605-617, Autumn.
    10. Jacquemin, Alexis P & Berry, Charles H, 1979. "Entropy Measure of Diversification and Corporate Growth," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(4), pages 359-369, June.
    11. John Goddard & Hong Liu & Phil Molyneux & John O.S. Wilson, 2013. "Do Bank Profits Converge?," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 19(2), pages 345-365, March.
    12. Stiroh, Kevin J. & Rumble, Adrienne, 2006. "The dark side of diversification: The case of US financial holding companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 2131-2161, August.
    13. Yiwei Fang & Iftekhar Hasan & Katherin Marton, 2011. "Institutional Development and Its Impact on the Performance Effect of Bank Diversification: Evidence from Transition Economies," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(0), pages 5-22, September.
    14. Stiroh, Kevin J, 2004. "Diversification in Banking: Is Noninterest Income the Answer?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(5), pages 853-882, October.
    15. Goddard, John & McKillop, Donal & Wilson, John O.S., 2008. "The diversification and financial performance of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1836-1849, September.
    16. David J. Denis & Diane K. Denis & Keven Yost, 2002. "Global Diversification, Industrial Diversification, and Firm Value," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 1951-1979, October.
    17. Richard Blundell & Stephen Bond, 2000. "GMM Estimation with persistent panel data: an application to production functions," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 321-340.
    18. Elsas, Ralf & Hackethal, Andreas & Holzhäuser, Markus, 2010. "The anatomy of bank diversification," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1274-1287, June.
    19. Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 2010. "Bank activity and funding strategies: The impact on risk and returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(3), pages 626-650, December.
    20. Berger, Allen N. & Hasan, Iftekhar & Zhou, Mingming, 2010. "The effects of focus versus diversification on bank performance: Evidence from Chinese banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1417-1435, July.
    21. Allen Berger & Robert DeYoung, 2001. "The Effects of Geographic Expansion on Bank Efficiency," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 19(2), pages 163-184, April.
    22. Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1995. "What Do We Know about Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1421-1460, December.
    23. Viral V. Acharya & Iftekhar Hasan & Anthony Saunders, 2006. "Should Banks Be Diversified? Evidence from Individual Bank Loan Portfolios," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(3), pages 1355-1412, May.
    24. Jean-François Hennart, 2007. "The theoretical rationale for a multinationality-performance relationship," Management International Review, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 423-452, June.
    25. Schmid, Markus M. & Walter, Ingo, 2009. "Do financial conglomerates create or destroy economic value?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 193-216, April.
    26. Belén Villalonga, 2004. "Does Diversification Cause the "Diversification Discount"?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 33(2), Summer.
    27. Reint Gropp & Florian Heider, 2010. "The Determinants of Bank Capital Structure," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 14(4), pages 587-622.
    28. Bowen, H.P. & Wiersema, M., 2007. "International and product diversification: their interrelationship and impact on firm performance," Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School Working Paper Series 2007-6, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School.
    29. Saiying (Esther) Deng & Elyas Elyasiani, 2008. "Geographic Diversification, Bank Holding Company Value, and Risk," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(6), pages 1217-1238, September.
    30. Jose Manuel Campa & Simi Kedia, 2002. "Explaining the Diversification Discount," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(4), pages 1731-1762, August.
    31. Douglas W. Diamond, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414.
    32. Boot, Arnoud W. A. & Schmeits, Anjolein, 2000. "Market Discipline and Incentive Problems in Conglomerate Firms with Applications to Banking," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 240-273, July.
    33. Smimou, K., 2011. "Transition to the Euro and its impact on country portfolio diversification," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 88-103, January.
    34. Goddard, John & Liu, Hong & Molyneux, Philip & Wilson, John O.S., 2011. "The persistence of bank profit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 2881-2890, November.
    35. Bowen, Harry P. & Baker, H. Kent & Powell, Gary E., 2015. "Globalization and diversification strategy: A managerial perspective," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 25-39.
    36. Schmid, Markus M. & Walter, Ingo, 2012. "Geographic diversification and firm value in the financial services industry," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 109-122.
    37. Bobillo, Alfredo M. & López-Iturriaga, Felix & Tejerina-Gaite, Fernando, 2010. "Firm performance and international diversification: The internal and external competitive advantages," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 607-618, December.
    38. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Hsieh, Meng-Fen, 2013. "The impact of bank capital on profitability and risk in Asian banking," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 251-281.
    39. Berrill, Jenny, 2010. "Firm-level analysis of the international diversification of small integrated stock markets: Ireland 1999-2007," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 172-189, June.
    40. Mahajan, Arvind & Rangan, Nanda & Zardkoohi, Asghar, 1996. "Cost structures in multinational and domestic banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 283-306, March.
    41. Baele, Lieven & De Jonghe, Olivier & Vander Vennet, Rudi, 2007. "Does the stock market value bank diversification?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1999-2023, July.
    42. Denis, David J & Denis, Diane K & Sarin, Atulya, 1997. "Agency Problems, Equity Ownership, and Corporate Diversification," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 135-160, March.
    43. Ahn, Seoungpil & Denis, David J. & Denis, Diane K., 2006. "Leverage and investment in diversified firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 317-337, February.
    44. Mercieca, Steve & Schaeck, Klaus & Wolfe, Simon, 2007. "Small European banks: Benefits from diversification?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1975-1998, July.
    45. Antonio Trujillo-Ponce, 2013. "What determines the profitability of banks? Evidence from Spain," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 53(2), pages 561-586, June.
    46. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Hsieh, Meng-Fen & Yang, Shih-Jui, 2014. "The relationship between revenue diversification and bank performance: Do financial structures and financial reforms matter?," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 18-35.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Jouida, Sameh, 2018. "Diversification, capital structure and profitability: A panel VAR approach11We are grateful to the editor and the anonymous reviewer for their valuable comments," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 243-256.
    2. Vo, Xuan Vinh, 2017. "How does the stock market value bank diversification? Evidence from Vietnam," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 101-104.
    3. Zúñiga-Vicente, José Ángel & Benito-Osorio, Diana & Guerras-Martín, Luis Ángel & Colino, Alberto, 2019. "The effects of international diversification on the link between product diversification and performance in a boom and bust cycle: Evidence from Spanish firms (1994–2014)," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 25(4).
    4. Zamore, Stephen, 2018. "Should microfinance institutions diversify or focus? A global analysis," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 105-119.
    5. Sameh Jouida, 2019. "Bank capital structure, capital requirements and SRISK across bank ownership types and financial crisis: panel VAR approach," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 53(1), pages 295-325, July.
    6. Muhammad Haris & Yong Tan & Ali Malik & Qurat Ul Ain, 2020. "A Study on the Impact of Capitalization on the Profitability of Banks in Emerging Markets: A Case of Pakistan," Journal of Risk and Financial Management, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(9), pages 1-21, September.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Hsieh, Meng-Fen & Yang, Shih-Jui, 2014. "The relationship between revenue diversification and bank performance: Do financial structures and financial reforms matter?," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 18-35.
    2. Francis, Bill B. & Hasan, Iftekhar & Küllü, A. Melih & Zhou, Mingming, 2018. "Should banks diversify or focus? Know thyself: The role of abilities," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 106-118.
    3. Jeon, Bang Nam & Wu, Ji & Chen, Limei & Chen, Minghua, 2020. "Diversification, efficiency and risk of banks: New consolidating evidence from emerging economies," School of Economics Working Paper Series 2020-10, LeBow College of Business, Drexel University.
    4. Jouida, Sameh, 2018. "Diversification, capital structure and profitability: A panel VAR approach11We are grateful to the editor and the anonymous reviewer for their valuable comments," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 243-256.
    5. Westman, Hanna, 2011. "The impact of management and board ownership on profitability in banks with different strategies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 3300-3318.
    6. Moudud-Ul-Huq, Syed & Ashraf, Badar Nadeem & Gupta, Anupam Das & Zheng, Changjun, 2018. "Does bank diversification heterogeneously affect performance and risk-taking in ASEAN emerging economies?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 342-362.
    7. Jouida, Sameh & Hellara, Slaheddine, 2018. "Diversification and target leverage of financial institutions," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 11-35.
    8. Curi, Claudia & Lozano-Vivas, Ana & Zelenyuk, Valentin, 2015. "Foreign bank diversification and efficiency prior to and during the financial crisis: Does one business model fit all?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(S1), pages 22-35.
    9. Brighi, Paola & Venturelli, Valeria, 2016. "How functional and geographic diversification affect bank profitability during the crisis," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 16(C), pages 1-10.
    10. Zamore, Stephen, 2018. "Should microfinance institutions diversify or focus? A global analysis," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 105-119.
    11. Mostak Ahamed, M., 2017. "Asset quality, non-interest income, and bank profitability: Evidence from Indian banks," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1-14.
    12. Paola Brighi & Valeria Venturelli, 2013. "How Income Diversification, Size and Capital Ratio Affect BHC’s Performance?," Department of Economics (DEMB) 0025, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Economics "Marco Biagi".
    13. Paola Brighi & Valeria Venturelli, 2013. "The Effect Of Revenue And Geographic Diversification On Bank Performance," Centro Studi di Banca e Finanza (CEFIN) (Center for Studies in Banking and Finance) 13103, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Economia "Marco Biagi".
    14. Boubakri, Narjess & Mirzaei, Ali & Samet, Anis, 2017. "National culture and bank performance: Evidence from the recent financial crisis," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 36-56.
    15. Laura Baselga-Pascual & Olga Del Orden-Olasagasti & Antonio Trujillo-Ponce, 2018. "Toward a More Resilient Financial System: Should Banks Be Diversified?," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(6), pages 1-16, June.
    16. Minzhi Wu & Emili Tortosa-Ausina, 2020. "Bank Diversification and Focus in Disruptive Times: China, 2007–2018," Working Papers 2020/21, Economics Department, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón (Spain).
    17. Khan, Abu & Hassan, M. Kabir & Maroney, Neal & Boujlil, Rhada & Ozkan, Bora, 2020. "Efficiency, diversification, and performance of US banks," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 101-117.
    18. Harimaya, Kozo & Ozaki, Yasufumi, 2021. "Effects of diversification on bank efficiency: Evidence from Shinkin banks in Japan," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 700-717.
    19. Paola Brighi & Valeria Venturelli, 2013. "The Effect Of Revenue And Geographic Diversification On Bank Performance," Centro Studi di Banca e Finanza (CEFIN) (Center for Studies in Banking and Finance) 0043, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Economia "Marco Biagi".
    20. Michael Doumpos & Chrysovalantis Gaganis & Fotios Pasiouras, 2016. "Bank Diversification and Overall Financial Strength: International Evidence," Working Papers 1602, University of Crete, Department of Economics.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:riibaf:v:39:y:2017:i:pb:p:920-939. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ribaf .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ribaf .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.