IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/bng/wpaper/10004.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Do Bank Profits Converge?

Author

Listed:
  • John Goddard

    () (Bangor University)

  • Hong Liu

    (Bangor Business School)

  • Phil Molyneux

    () (Bangor University)

  • John O.S. Wilson

    (University of St Andrews)

Abstract

This paper examines the determinants and convergence of bank profitability in eight European Union member countries, between 1992 and 2007, using a dynamic panel model. There is evidence of persistence of abnormal bank profit from one year to the next. Average profitability was higher in banks that are strongly capitalised, efficient and diversified. The persistence of EU bank profit was lower in 1999-2007 than it was in 1992-98 in six of the eight countries. This suggests there has been an increase in the intensity of competition and speed of convergence of profits towards their long-run equilibrium values. These developments are attributed to improvements in the integration of financial markets within the EU, following the introduction of the euro in 1999, and the implementation of the Financial Services Action Plan.

Suggested Citation

  • John Goddard & Hong Liu & Phil Molyneux & John O.S. Wilson, 2010. "Do Bank Profits Converge?," Working Papers 10004, Bangor Business School, Prifysgol Bangor University (Cymru / Wales).
  • Handle: RePEc:bng:wpaper:10004
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.bangor.ac.uk/business/docs/BBSWP10004.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Molyneux, Phil & Lloyd-Williams, D. M. & Thornton, John, 1994. "Competitive conditions in european banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 445-459, May.
    2. Panzar, John C & Rosse, James N, 1987. "Testing for "Monopoly" Equilibrium," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(4), pages 443-456, June.
    3. Berger, Allen N, 1995. "The Relationship between Capital and Earnings in Banking," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(2), pages 432-456, May.
    4. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-1054, July.
    5. Laeven, Luc & Levine, Ross, 2007. "Is there a diversification discount in financial conglomerates?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 331-367, August.
    6. John Goddard & Phil Molyneux & John O. S. Wilson, 2004. "The profitability of european banks: a cross-sectional and dynamic panel analysis," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 72(3), pages 363-381, June.
    7. Xavier Freixas, 2005. "Deconstructing relationship banking," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 29(1), pages 3-31, January.
    8. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    9. Reint Gropp & Anil K Kashyap, 2010. "A New Metric for Banking Integration in Europe," NBER Chapters, in: Europe and the Euro, pages 219-246, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Baumol, William J, 1982. "Contestable Markets: An Uprising in the Theory of Industry Structure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(1), pages 1-15, March.
    11. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 1998. "Bank Capitalization And Cost: Evidence Of Scale Economies In Risk Management And Signaling," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(2), pages 314-325, May.
    12. Paul Evans & Iftekhar Hasan & Ana Lozano-Vivas, 2008. "Deregulation and Convergence of Banking: The EU Experience," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 21(2), pages 104-117, Autumn.
    13. Geroski, Paul A & Jacquemin, Alexis, 1988. "The Persistence of Profits: A European Comparison," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 98(391), pages 375-389, June.
    14. John Goddard & Phil Molyneux & John O.S. Wilson, 2009. "The financial crisis in Europe: evolution, policy responses and lessons for the future," Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 17(4), pages 362-380, November.
    15. Mark P. Sharfman & Chitru S. Fernando, 2008. "Environmental risk management and the cost of capital," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(6), pages 569-592, June.
    16. Goddard, John & Molyneux, Philip & Wilson, John O.S. & Tavakoli, Manouche, 2007. "European banking: An overview," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1911-1935, July.
    17. Berger, Allen N, 1995. "The Profit-Structure Relationship in Banking--Tests of Market-Power and Efficient-Structure Hypotheses," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(2), pages 404-431, May.
    18. Jean Dermine, 1996. "European banking integration, ten years after," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 2(3), pages 331-353, November.
    19. William F. Sharpe, 1964. "Capital Asset Prices: A Theory Of Market Equilibrium Under Conditions Of Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 19(3), pages 425-442, September.
    20. Barbara Casu & Claudia Girardone, 2006. "Bank Competition, Concentration And Efficiency In The Single European Market," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 74(4), pages 441-468, July.
    21. Lepetit, Laetitia & Nys, Emmanuelle & Rous, Philippe & Tarazi, Amine, 2008. "Bank income structure and risk: An empirical analysis of European banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1452-1467, August.
    22. Berger, Allen N. & Miller, Nathan H. & Petersen, Mitchell A. & Rajan, Raghuram G. & Stein, Jeremy C., 2005. "Does function follow organizational form? Evidence from the lending practices of large and small banks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 237-269, May.
    23. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    24. Michael R King, 2009. "The cost of equity for global banks: a CAPM perspective from 1990 to 2009," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, September.
    25. Molyneux, Philip & Thornton, John, 1992. "Determinants of European bank profitability: A note," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 1173-1178, December.
    26. anonymous, 1992. "Interview with Milton Friedman," The Region, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue june.
    27. Yener Altunbas & Santiago Carbo & Edward P.M. Gardener & Philip Molyneux, 2007. "Examining the Relationships between Capital, Risk and Efficiency in European Banking," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 13(1), pages 49-70, January.
    28. Goddard, John & Molyneux, Phil & Wilson, John O S, 2004. "Dynamics of Growth and Profitability in Banking," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(6), pages 1069-1090, December.
    29. Mueller, Dennis C, 1977. "The Persistence of Profits above the Norm," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 44(176), pages 369-380, November.
    30. Robert DeYoung & Tara Rice, 2004. "Noninterest Income and Financial Performance at U.S. Commercial Banks," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 39(1), pages 101-127, February.
    31. Berger, Allen N. & Bonime, Seth D. & Covitz, Daniel M. & Hancock, Diana, 2000. "Why are bank profits so persistent? The roles of product market competition, informational opacity, and regional/macroeconomic shocks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(7), pages 1203-1235, July.
    32. Casu, Barbara & Girardone, Claudia, 2010. "Integration and efficiency convergence in EU banking markets," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 260-267, October.
    33. Franklin Allen & Wei‐Ling Song, 2005. "Financial Integration and EMU," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 11(1), pages 7-24, January.
    34. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    35. Altunbas, Yener & Evans, Lynne & Molyneux, Philip, 2001. "Bank Ownership and Efficiency," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(4), pages 926-954, November.
    36. Waring, Geoffrey F, 1996. "Industry Differences in the Persistence of Firm-Specific Returns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1253-1265, December.
    37. Molyneux, Phil & Wilson, John O.S., 2007. "Developments in European banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1907-1910, July.
    38. Goddard, J. A. & Wilson, J. O. S., 1999. "The persistence of profit: a new empirical interpretation," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 663-687, July.
    39. Carbo Valverde, Santiago & Rodriguez Fernandez, Francisco, 2007. "The determinants of bank margins in European banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 2043-2063, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Hong Liu & Phil Molyneux & John O. S. Wilson, 2013. "Competition And Stability In European Banking: A Regional Analysis," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 81(2), pages 176-201, March.
    2. Van Dan Dang, 2019. "Should Vietnamese Banks Need More Equity? Evidence on Risk-Return Trade-Off in Dynamic Models of Banking," Journal of Risk and Financial Management, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(2), pages 1-13, May.
    3. Bongini, Paola & Cucinelli, Doriana & Battista, Maria Luisa Di & Nieri, Laura, 2019. "Profitability shocks and recovery in time of crisis evidence from European banks," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 233-239.
    4. Leledakis, George N. & Pyrgiotakis, Emmanouil G., 2019. "Market concentration and bank M&As: Evidence from the European sovereign debt crisis," MPRA Paper 95739, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Evrim TURGUTLU, 2014. "Dynamics of Profitability in the Turkish Banking Industry," Ege Academic Review, Ege University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, vol. 14(1), pages 43-52.
    6. Tran, Vuong Thao & Lin, Chien-Ting & Nguyen, Hoa, 2016. "Liquidity creation, regulatory capital, and bank profitability," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 98-109.
    7. Mohammad Bitar & M. Kabir Hassan & Kuntara Pukthuanthong & Thomas Walker, 2018. "The Performance of Islamic Vs. Conventional Banks: Evidence on the Suitability of the Basel Capital Ratios," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 29(5), pages 1003-1038, November.
    8. Degl'Innocenti, Marta & Kourtzidis, Stavros A. & Sevic, Zeljko & Tzeremes, Nickolaos G., 2017. "Bank productivity growth and convergence in the European Union during the financial crisis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 184-199.
    9. Mamatzakis, Emmanuel & Bagntasarian, Anna, 2019. "The nexus between underlying dynamics of bank capital buffer and performance," MPRA Paper 92961, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Hsieh, Meng-Fen, 2013. "The impact of bank capital on profitability and risk in Asian banking," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 251-281.
    11. Hung, Chi-Hsiou D. & Jiang, Yuxiang & Liu, Frank Hong & Tu, Hong & Wang, Senyu, 2017. "Bank political connections and performance in China," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 57-69.
    12. Jouida, Sameh & Bouzgarrou, Houssam & Hellara, Slaheddine, 2017. "The effects of activity and geographic diversification on performance: Evidence from French financial institutions," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(PB), pages 920-939.
    13. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-413 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Anachit Bagntasarian & Emmanuel Mamatzakis, 2019. "Testing for the underlying dynamics of bank capital buffer and performance nexus," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 52(2), pages 347-380, February.
    15. Javid Iqbal, 2019. "Managerial Self-Attribution Bias and Banks’ Future Performance: Evidence from Emerging Economies," Journal of Risk and Financial Management, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(2), pages 1-32, April.
    16. Homma, Tetsushi & Tsutsui, Yoshiro & Uchida, Hirofumi, 2014. "Firm growth and efficiency in the banking industry: A new test of the efficient structure hypothesis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 143-153.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bng:wpaper:10004. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Alan Thomas). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/sabanuk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.