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Financial flows and per capita income in developing countries

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  • Anwar, Sajid
  • Cooray, Arusha

Abstract

Using country level panel data over the period 1970–2011, this paper evaluates the direct as well as indirect impact of three types of financial flows (foreign direct investment, remittances and official development aid) on the per capita income of a group of low and middle income countries. The empirical results suggest that the direct effect of official development aid in developing countries is mostly negative. This conclusion also holds when the sample is divided into different regions. All three estimation techniques used (i.e., Ordinary Least Squares, panel fixed effects and system Generalised Method of Moments) yield broadly similar results. We find that official development aid and government spending are complementary and hence, depending on the level of effectiveness of government spending programs, official development aid can have an indirect positive impact on income per capita. On the other hand, both remittances and foreign direct investment appear to have a direct positive and statistically significant effect on per capita income.

Suggested Citation

  • Anwar, Sajid & Cooray, Arusha, 2015. "Financial flows and per capita income in developing countries," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 304-314.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:reveco:v:35:y:2015:i:c:p:304-314
    DOI: 10.1016/j.iref.2014.10.009
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    1. repec:eee:quaeco:v:66:y:2017:i:c:p:265-274 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:eee:reveco:v:51:y:2017:i:c:p:19-35 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Metaxas, Theodore & Kechagia, Polyxeni, 2016. "Literature review of 100 empirical studies of Foreign Direct Investment: 1950-2015," MPRA Paper 71414, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Mohammad Reza Farzanegan & Sherif Maher Hassan, 2016. "How does the Flow of Remittances Affect the Trade Balance of the Middle East and North Africa?," CESifo Working Paper Series 6172, CESifo Group Munich.
    5. Turnbull, Christopher & Sun, Sizhong & Anwar, Sajid, 2016. "Trade liberalisation, inward FDI and productivity within Australia’s manufacturing sector," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 41-51.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    FDI; Remittances; Official development aid; Developing countries; Panel data analysis;

    JEL classification:

    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O23 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development

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