IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

The dispersion of technology and income in Europe: Evolution and mutual relationship across regions


  • Mulas-Granados, Carlos
  • Sanz, Ismael


The first part of this article explores whether convergence has occurred in technology and income across EU regions during the period 1990-2002. The second part evaluates whether these two processes of convergence are related to each other. With respect to the first question, we find that all R&D indicators and patents have converged among regions during the 1990s and this has ran parallel to a real convergence in income per capita levels. Regarding the second question, we have identified a strong relationship between the distribution of technology indicators and the distribution of regional income in Europe. Our main result is that convergence in business R&D leads to convergence in patents, which in turn leads to convergence in income per capita. Although, we identify a role for government R&D and higher education spending in this process, the policy implications for these two variables are less clear.

Suggested Citation

  • Mulas-Granados, Carlos & Sanz, Ismael, 2008. "The dispersion of technology and income in Europe: Evolution and mutual relationship across regions," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 836-848, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:37:y:2008:i:5:p:836-848

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
    2. Raffaele Paci & Stefano Usai, 2000. "Technological Enclaves and Industrial Districts: An Analysis of the Regional Distribution of Innovative Activity in Europe," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(2), pages 97-114.
    3. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    4. Martin Carree & Luuk Klomp, 1997. "Testing The Convergence Hypothesis: A Comment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 683-686, November.
    5. Damien Neven & Claudine Gouymte, 1995. "Regional Convergence in the European Community," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(1), pages 47-65, March.
    6. Barro, Robert J, 1990. "Government Spending in a Simple Model of Endogenous Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 103-126, October.
    7. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    8. Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano & Diego Puga, 1998. "Agglomeration in the Global Economy: A Survey of the 'New Economic Geography'," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(6), pages 707-731, August.
    9. Martín, Carmela & Mulas-Granados, Carlos & Sanz, Ismael, 2005. "Spatial distribution of R&D expenditure and patent applications across EU regions and its impact on economic cohesion," INVESTIGACIONES REGIONALES - Journal of REGIONAL RESEARCH, Asociación Española de Ciencia Regional, issue 6, pages 41-61.
    10. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    11. Devarajan, Shantayanan & Swaroop, Vinaya & Heng-fu, Zou, 1996. "The composition of public expenditure and economic growth," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 313-344, April.
    12. Xie, Danyang & Zou, Heng-fu & Davoodi, Hamid, 1999. "Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth in the United States," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 228-239, March.
    13. Jan Fagerberg, 1999. "Vision and fact - A critical essay on the growth literature," Working Papers Archives 1999003, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
    14. Jan Fagerberg & Bart Verspagen, 1996. "Heading for Divergence? Regional Growth in Europe Reconsidered," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(3), pages 431-448, September.
    15. Hansen, Bruce E., 1992. "Testing for parameter instability in linear models," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 517-533, August.
    16. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    17. Romer, Paul M, 1990. "Endogenous Technological Change," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 71-102, October.
    18. Toda, Hiro Y. & Yamamoto, Taku, 1995. "Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1-2), pages 225-250.
    19. Magrini, Stefano, 2004. "Regional (di)convergence," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics,in: J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 62, pages 2741-2796 Elsevier.
    20. Raffaele Paci, 1997. "More similar and less equal: Economic growth in the European regions," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 133(4), pages 609-634, December.
    21. Nick Von Tunzelmann, 2004. "Integrating Economic Policy and Technology Policy in the EU," Revue d'Économie Industrielle, Programme National Persée, vol. 105(1), pages 85-104.
    22. Michele Boldrin & Fabio Canova, 2001. "Inequality and convergence in Europe's regions: reconsidering European regional policies," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 16(32), pages 205-253, April.
    23. Caporale, Guglielmo Maria & Pittis, Nikitas, 1999. " Efficient Estimation of Cointegrating Vectors and Testing for Causality in Vector Autoregressions," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(1), pages 1-35, February.
    24. R. Paci & F. Pigliaru, 2001. "Technological Diffusion, Spatial Spillovers And Regional Convergence In Europe," Working Paper CRENoS 200101, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
    25. Lichtenberg, Frank R, 1994. "Testing the Convergence Hypothesis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(3), pages 576-579, August.
    26. Daniel Wilson, 2003. "Embodying Embodiment in a Structural, Macroeconomic Input-Output Model," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 371-398.
    27. Bernard, Andrew B & Jones, Charles I, 1996. "Technology and Convergence," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 1037-1044, July.
    28. Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-1426, November.
    29. Giulio Cainelli & Rinaldo Evangelista & Maria Savona, 2004. "The impact of innovation on economic performance in services," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(1), pages 116-130, January.
    30. Clarysse, Bart & Muldur, Ugur, 2001. "Regional cohesion in Europe? An analysis of how EU public RTD support influences the techno-economic regional landscape," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 275-296, February.
    31. Yang, Chih-Hai, 2006. "Is innovation the story of Taiwan's economic growth?," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 867-878, November.
    32. Oecd, 2004. "Patents and Innovation: Trends and Policy Challenges," Levine's Working Paper Archive 122247000000000502, David K. Levine.
    33. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    34. Quah, Danny T, 1996. "Convergence Empirics across Economies with (Some) Capital Mobility," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 95-124, March.
    35. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Gurgul, Henryk & Lach, Łukasz, 2012. "Technological progress and economic growth: evidence from Poland," MPRA Paper 52279, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Arias-Aranda, Daniel & Romerosa-Martínez, M. Mercedes, 2010. "Innovation in the functional foods industry in a peripheral region of the European Union: Andalusia (Spain)," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 240-246, June.
    3. ANDRADE, Carlos & PINHO, Carlos & PINHO, Maria de Fátima, 2010. "Exploring Regional Convergence: Evidence From 19 European Countries, 1991-2008," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 10(2).
    4. Völlmecke, Dominik & Jindra, Björn & Marek, Philipp, 2016. "FDI, human capital and income convergence—Evidence for European regions," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 288-307.
    5. Áron Kiss, 2009. "Coalition politics and accountability," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 139(3), pages 413-428, June.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:37:y:2008:i:5:p:836-848. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.