IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/phsmap/v534y2019ics0378437119312701.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Real interest rate and economic growth: A statistical exploration for transitory economies

Author

Listed:
  • Shaukat, Badiea
  • Zhu, Qigui
  • Khan, M. Ijaz

Abstract

The paper examines the mechanism through which the real interest rate establishes a negative impact on economic growth in transitory economies. We Used dynamic panel data technique based on the Generalized Method of Moments (n-step estimation) under ten equations SEM for the period of 1996–2015 of 38 countries having different transition levels. The results establish the multi-fold inverse relation of real interest rate with economic growth through local and foreign investments, human capital, trade openness, exchange rate, inflation, institutional strength, political instability, and corruption. The study finds that interest rate is exogenously determined in transitory economies where real interest rate through its multiple channels may not only detrimental but also restricts the economy to sustain its respective transitional level and to achieve higher growth rate. As a policy implication, this work suggests a low interest rate is highly required and beneficial for transitory/developing nations to sustain the transition and attain higher growth rate, rapidly.

Suggested Citation

  • Shaukat, Badiea & Zhu, Qigui & Khan, M. Ijaz, 2019. "Real interest rate and economic growth: A statistical exploration for transitory economies," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 534(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:phsmap:v:534:y:2019:i:c:s0378437119312701
    DOI: 10.1016/j.physa.2019.122193
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378437119312701
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only. Journal offers the option of making the article available online on Science direct for a fee of $3,000

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.physa.2019.122193?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
    2. Robert J. Barro, 2013. "Inflation and Economic Growth," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 14(1), pages 121-144, May.
    3. Breeden, Douglas T., 1986. "Consumption, production, inflation and interest rates : A synthesis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 3-39, May.
    4. Balasubramanyam, V N & Salisu, M & Sapsford, David, 1996. "Foreign Direct Investment and Growth in EP and IS Countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(434), pages 92-105, January.
    5. Basil J. Moore, 1988. "The Endogenous Money Supply," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(3), pages 372-385, March.
    6. Romain Wacziarg & Karen Horn Welch, 2008. "Trade Liberalization and Growth: New Evidence," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 22(2), pages 187-231, June.
    7. Richard Baldwin & Henrik Braconier & Rikard Forslid, 2005. "Multinationals, Endogenous Growth, and Technological Spillovers: Theory and Evidence," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(5), pages 945-963, November.
    8. Barro, Robert J & Mankiw, N Gregory & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1995. "Capital Mobility in Neoclassical Models of Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(1), pages 103-115, March.
    9. Nugent, Jeffrey B, 1973. "Exchange-Rate Movements and Economic Development in the Late Nineteenth Century," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(5), pages 1110-1135, Sept.-Oct.
    10. Robert M. Solow, 1956. "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(1), pages 65-94.
    11. Kevin Honglin Zhang, 2001. "How does foreign direct investment affect economic growth in China?," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 9(3), pages 679-693, November.
    12. Jakob B. Madsen, 2009. "Trade Barriers, Openness, and Economic Growth," Southern Economic Journal, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 76(2), pages 397-418, October.
    13. Borensztein, E. & De Gregorio, J. & Lee, J-W., 1998. "How does foreign direct investment affect economic growth?1," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 115-135, June.
    14. Young, Andrew T. & Sheehan, Kathleen M., 2014. "Foreign aid, institutional quality, and growth," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 195-208.
    15. Alfaro, Laura & Chanda, Areendam & Kalemli-Ozcan, Sebnem & Sayek, Selin, 2004. "FDI and economic growth: the role of local financial markets," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 89-112, October.
    16. Butkiewicz, James L. & Yanikkaya, Halit, 2006. "Institutional quality and economic growth: Maintenance of the rule of law or democratic institutions, or both?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 648-661, July.
    17. Dani Rodrik, 2008. "The Real Exchange Rate and Economic Growth," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 39(2 (Fall)), pages 365-439.
    18. Zsolt Darvas, 2012. "Real effective exchange rates for 178 countries: A new database," CERS-IE WORKING PAPERS 1210, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies.
    19. Jody Overland & Kenneth Simons & Michael Spagat, 2005. "Political instability and growth in dictatorships," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 125(3), pages 445-470, December.
    20. Bullard, James & Keating, John W., 1995. "The long-run relationship between inflation and output in postwar economies," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 477-496, December.
    21. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Newey, Whitney & Rosen, Harvey S, 1988. "Estimating Vector Autoregressions with Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(6), pages 1371-1395, November.
    22. Tobin, James, 1969. "A General Equilibrium Approach to Monetary Theory," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 15-29, February.
    23. Paolo Mauro, 2004. "The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 51(1), pages 1-1.
    24. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    25. Steve Dowrick & Jane Golley, 2004. "Trade Openness and Growth: Who Benefits?," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(1), pages 38-56, Spring.
    26. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    27. Iamsiraroj, Sasi & Ulubaşoğlu, Mehmet Ali, 2015. "Foreign direct investment and economic growth: A real relationship or wishful thinking?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 200-213.
    28. Benhabib, Jess & Spiegel, Mark M., 1994. "The role of human capital in economic development evidence from aggregate cross-country data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 143-173, October.
    29. Slesman, Ly & Baharumshah, Ahmad Zubaidi & Ra'ees, Wahabuddin, 2015. "Institutional infrastructure and economic growth in member countries of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 214-226.
    30. Teixeira, Aurora A.C. & Queirós, Anabela S.S., 2016. "Economic growth, human capital and structural change: A dynamic panel data analysis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(8), pages 1636-1648.
    31. Fernando Alvarez & Robert E. Lucas & Warren E. Weber, 2001. "Interest Rates and Inflation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 219-225, May.
    32. Nair-Reichert, Usha & Weinhold, Diana, 2001. "Causality Tests for Cross-Country Panels: A New Look at FDI and Economic Growth in Developing Countries," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(2), pages 153-171, May.
    33. Barro, Robert J & Becker, Gary S, 1989. "Fertility Choice in a Model of Economic Growth," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 481-501, March.
    34. Prabirjit Sarkar, 2008. "Trade Openness and Growth: Is There Any Link?," Journal of Economic Issues, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(3), pages 763-785, September.
    35. Romer, Paul M, 1990. "Endogenous Technological Change," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 71-102, October.
    36. Kamara, Avraham, 1997. "The Relation between Default-Free Interest Rates and Expected Economic Growth Is Stronger Than You Think," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(4), pages 1681-1694, September.
    37. C. S. Poirot, 1993. "Institutions and Economic Evolution," Journal of Economic Issues, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(3), pages 887-907, September.
    38. Paulo Gala, 2008. "Real exchange rate levels and economic development: theoretical analysis and econometric evidence," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 32(2), pages 273-288, March.
    39. Jonas Ljungberg & Anders Nilsson, 2009. "Human capital and economic growth: Sweden 1870–2000," Cliometrica, Journal of Historical Economics and Econometric History, Association Française de Cliométrie (AFC), vol. 3(1), pages 71-95, January.
    40. Edward J. McKenna & Diane C. Zannoni, 1990. "The Relation between the Rate of Interest and Investment in Post-Keynesian and Neo-Ricardian Analysis," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 16(2), pages 133-143, Apr-Jun.
    41. Claudia Williamson, 2009. "Informal institutions rule: institutional arrangements and economic performance," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 139(3), pages 371-387, June.
    42. Gupta, Manash Ranjan & Chaudhuri, Sarbajit, 1997. "Formal Credit, Corruption and the Informal Credit Market in Agriculture: A Theoretical Analysis," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 64(254), pages 331-343, May.
    43. Aisen, Ari & Veiga, Francisco José, 2013. "How does political instability affect economic growth?," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 151-167.
    44. Barro, Robert J. & Lee, Jong Wha, 2013. "A new data set of educational attainment in the world, 1950–2010," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 184-198.
    45. Sumei Tang & E. A. Selvanathan & S. Selvanathan, 2008. "Foreign Direct Investment, Domestic Investment and Economic Growth in China: A Time Series Analysis," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(10), pages 1292-1309, October.
    46. Omri, Anis & kahouli, Bassem, 2014. "The nexus among foreign investment, domestic capital and economic growth: Empirical evidence from the MENA region," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 257-263.
    47. Psacharopoulos, George, 1994. "Returns to investment in education: A global update," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1325-1343, September.
    48. Hayashi, Fumio, 1982. "Tobin's Marginal q and Average q: A Neoclassical Interpretation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 213-224, January.
    49. Donald L. Martin, 1975. "Interest Rates and Occupational Choice," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 10(4), pages 537-543.
    50. Lapan, Harvey E, 1975. "Non-Steady-State Economic Growth in a Two-Sector World," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 43(3), pages 469-492, May.
    51. Mark Gradstein, 2008. "Institutional Traps And Economic Growth," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 49(3), pages 1043-1066, August.
    52. Breeden, Douglas T., 1979. "An intertemporal asset pricing model with stochastic consumption and investment opportunities," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 265-296, September.
    53. Bittencourt, Manoel, 2012. "Inflation and economic growth in Latin America: Some panel time-series evidence," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 333-340.
    54. Park, Junghee, 2012. "Corruption, soundness of the banking sector, and economic growth: A cross-country study," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 907-929.
    55. Pranab Bardhan, 1997. "Corruption and Development: A Review of Issues," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(3), pages 1320-1346, September.
    56. Anwar, Sajid & Sun, Sizhong, 2011. "Financial development, foreign investment and economic growth in Malaysia," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 335-342, August.
    57. J. A. Kregel, 1986. "A Note on Finance, Liquidity, Saving, and Investment," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(1), pages 91-100, September.
    58. Adams, Samuel, 2009. "Foreign Direct investment, domestic investment, and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 939-949, November.
    59. Harvey, Campbell R., 1988. "The real term structure and consumption growth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 305-333, December.
    60. Garegnani, Pierangelo, 1979. "Notes on Consumption, Investment and Effective Demand: II," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 3(1), pages 63-82, March.
    61. Edwards, Sebastian, 1992. "Trade orientation, distortions and growth in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 31-57, July.
    62. Erich Gundlach, 1997. "Openness and economic growth in developing countries," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 133(3), pages 479-496, September.
    63. Cochrane, John H, 1991. "Production-Based Asset Pricing and the Link between Stock Returns and Economic Fluctuations," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(1), pages 209-237, March.
    64. Davis, Lewis S., 2010. "Institutional flexibility and economic growth," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 306-320, September.
    65. Alesina, Alberto & Özler, Sule & Roubini, Nouriel & Swagel, Phillip, 1996. "Political Instability and Economic Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(2), pages 189-211, June.
    66. Kandel, Shmuel & Ofer, Aharon R & Sarig, Oded, 1996. "Real Interest Rates and Inflation: An Ex-Ante Empirical Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 205-225, March.
    67. Durham, J.B.J. Benson, 2004. "Absorptive capacity and the effects of foreign direct investment and equity foreign portfolio investment on economic growth," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 285-306, April.
    68. Chen, Been-Lon, 1999. "Trade Openness and Economic Growth: Evidence in East Asia and Latin America," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 14, pages 265-295.
    69. Fosu, Augustin Kwasi, 1992. "Political Instability and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(4), pages 829-841, July.
    70. Mushfiq Swaleheen, 2011. "Economic growth with endogenous corruption: an empirical study," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 146(1), pages 23-41, January.
    71. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    72. Su, Yaqin & Liu, Zhiqiang, 2016. "The impact of foreign direct investment and human capital on economic growth: Evidence from Chinese cities," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 97-109.
    73. Xu, Bin, 2000. "Multinational enterprises, technology diffusion, and host country productivity growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 477-493, August.
    74. J. P. Gould, 1968. "Adjustment Costs in the Theory of Investment of the Firm," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 35(1), pages 47-55.
    75. Paolo Mauro, 1995. "Corruption and Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(3), pages 681-712.
    76. L. Randall Wray, 2006. "When are Interest Rates Exogenous?," Chapters, in: Mark Setterfield (ed.), Complexity, Endogenous Money and Macroeconomic Theory, chapter 15, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    77. Ramón López & Gregmar I. Galinato, 2005. "Trade Policies, Economic Growth, and the Direct Causes of Deforestation," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 81(2).
    78. repec:cii:cepiei:2014-q3-139-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    79. Robert Mundell, 1963. "Inflation and Real Interest," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 71, pages 280-280.
    80. Robert E. Lucas & Jr., 1967. "Adjustment Costs and the Theory of Supply," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75, pages 321-321.
    81. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Özer Depren & Mustafa Tevfik Kartal & Serpil Kılıç Depren, 2021. "Recent innovation in benchmark rates (BMR): evidence from influential factors on Turkish Lira Overnight Reference Interest Rate with machine learning algorithms," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 7(1), pages 1-20, December.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Badiea Shaukat & Qigui Zhu, 2021. "Finance and growth: Particular role of Zakat to levitate development in transition economies," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(1), pages 998-1017, January.
    2. E. Tsanana & X. Chapsa & C. Katrakilidis, 2016. "Is growth corrupted or bureaucratic? Panel evidence from the enlarged EU," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(33), pages 3131-3147, July.
    3. Iamsiraroj, Sasi, 2016. "The foreign direct investment–economic growth nexus," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 116-133.
    4. Dalila NICET- CHENAF (GREThA-GRES) & Eric ROUGIER (GREThA-GRES), 2008. "Recent exports matter: export discoveries, FDI and Growth, an empirical assessment for MENA countries," Cahiers du GRES (2002-2009) 2008-17, Groupement de Recherches Economiques et Sociales.
    5. Yao Yao & Ruhul Salim, 2020. "Crowds in or crowds out? The effect of foreign direct investment on domestic investment in Chinese cities," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 58(5), pages 2129-2154, May.
    6. Zaiter Lahimer, Mahjouba, 2011. "L’impact des entrées de capitaux privés sur la croissance économique dans les pays en développement," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/7670 edited by Sterdyniak, Henri, November.
    7. Shima’a Hanafy & Marcus Marktanner, 2019. "Sectoral FDI, absorptive capacity and economic growth – empirical evidence from Egyptian governorates," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(1), pages 57-81, January.
    8. Imen Mohamed Sghaier, 2021. "Foreign Financial Flows, Human Capital and Economic Growth in North African Countries," Economic Alternatives, University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria, issue 3, pages 355-371, September.
    9. Syed Ali Raza & Mohd Zaini Abd Karim, 2018. "Influence of Systemic Banking Crises and Currency Crises on the FDI-Growth Nexus: Evidence from China," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 19(3), pages 572-589, June.
    10. Tran, Nguyen Van & Alauddin, Mohammad & Tran, Quyet Van, 2019. "Labour quality and benefits reaped from global economic integration: An application of dynamic panel SGMM estimators," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 92-106.
    11. Ilkhom SHARIPOV, 2016. "ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE EU’S EaP COUNTRIES: DETERMINANTS AND PROSPECTS," EURINT, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 3, pages 169-187.
    12. Muhammad Arshad Khan, 2007. "Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: The Role of Domestic Financial Sector," PIDE-Working Papers 2007:18, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    13. Iamsiraroj, Sasi & Ulubaşoğlu, Mehmet Ali, 2015. "Foreign direct investment and economic growth: A real relationship or wishful thinking?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 200-213.
    14. John Ssozi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2016. "The Comparative Economics of Catch-up in Output per Worker, Total Factor Productivity and Technological Gain in Sub-Saharan Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(2), pages 215-228, June.
    15. Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam, 2016. "The Stages of Human Capital and Economic Growth: Does the Direction of Causality Matter for the Rich and the Poor?," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 127(1), pages 243-302, May.
    16. Mohammed Abdullah & Murshed Chowdhury, 2020. "Foreign Direct Investment and Total Factor Productivity: Any Nexus?," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 14(2), pages 164-190, May.
    17. Seng Sothan, 2017. "Causality between foreign direct investment and economic growth for Cambodia," Cogent Economics & Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 1277860-127, January.
    18. Kemeny, Thomas, 2010. "Does Foreign Direct Investment Drive Technological Upgrading?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 1543-1554, November.
    19. Bajo-Rubio, Oscar, 2020. "The role of foreign direct investment in growth: Spain, 1964-2013," GLO Discussion Paper Series 676, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    20. Adams, Samuel & Opoku, Eric Evans Osei, 2015. "Foreign direct investment, regulations and growth in sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 48-56.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Economic growth; Real interest rate; Dynamic panel data; Transitory economies;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O4 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity
    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • E6 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook
    • E1 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models
    • E43 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:phsmap:v:534:y:2019:i:c:s0378437119312701. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/physica-a-statistical-mechpplications/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/physica-a-statistical-mechpplications/ .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.