IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/jpolmo/v40y2018i5p934-958.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Market structure, bank conduct and bank performance: Evidence from ASEAN

Author

Listed:
  • Khan, Habib Hussain
  • Ahmad, Rubi Binti
  • Chan, Sok Gee

Abstract

Whether banks in a concentrated market increase their profits through monopoly pricing is a question of prime concern for antitrust policies. We explore this question by introducing the role of bank conduct into the structure–performance relationship. We apply Two-step System GMM dynamic panel model to commercial banks in the Association of South East Asian Nations over the period of 1999–2014. The results indicate that the higher profits in concentrated banking industries are partially attributable to the anti-competitive conduct of banks. These findings are robust across alternative measures of market structure and bank conduct, and different time horizons. The implications of these findings require regulators to make sure that the consolidation policy for ASEAN is achieving its purpose – i.e. financial stability – and not allowing the banks to earn monopoly rents.

Suggested Citation

  • Khan, Habib Hussain & Ahmad, Rubi Binti & Chan, Sok Gee, 2018. "Market structure, bank conduct and bank performance: Evidence from ASEAN," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 934-958.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jpolmo:v:40:y:2018:i:5:p:934-958
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jpolmod.2018.02.001
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0161893818300218
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.jpolmod.2018.02.001?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Claessens, Stijn & van Horen, Neeltje, 2012. "Being a foreigner among domestic banks: Asset or liability?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 1276-1290.
    2. Chan, Sok-Gee & Koh, Eric H.Y. & Zainir, Fauzi & Yong, Chen-Chen, 2015. "Market structure, institutional framework and bank efficiency in ASEAN 5," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 84-112.
    3. Demirguc, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 1999. "Determinants of Commercial Bank Interest Margins and Profitability: Some International Evidence," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 379-408, May.
    4. Beck, Thorsten & Levine, Ross, 2004. "Stock markets, banks, and growth: Panel evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 423-442, March.
    5. Athanasoglou, Panayiotis P. & Brissimis, Sophocles N. & Delis, Matthaios D., 2008. "Bank-specific, industry-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 121-136, April.
    6. Barbara Casu & Claudia Girardone, 2005. "An analysis of the relevance of off-balance sheet items in explaining productivity change in European banking," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(15), pages 1053-1061.
    7. Olivero, María Pía & Li, Yuan & Jeon, Bang Nam, 2011. "Competition in banking and the lending channel: Evidence from bank-level data in Asia and Latin America," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 560-571, March.
    8. Berger, Allen N, 1995. "The Profit-Structure Relationship in Banking--Tests of Market-Power and Efficient-Structure Hypotheses," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(2), pages 404-431, May.
    9. Joe S. Bain, 1951. "Relation of Profit Rate to Industry Concentration: American Manufacturing, 1936–1940," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 65(3), pages 293-324.
    10. Berger, Allen N & Hannan, Timothy H, 1989. "The Price-Concentration Relationship in Banking," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(2), pages 291-299, May.
    11. Molyneux, Philip & Thornton, John, 1992. "Determinants of European bank profitability: A note," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 1173-1178, December.
    12. Martin, Stephen, 1988. "Market Power and/or Efficiency?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(2), pages 331-335, May.
    13. Asli Demirgüč-Kunt & Luc Laeven & Ross Levine, 2004. "Regulations, market structure, institutions, and the cost of financial intermediation," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 593-626.
    14. Shepherd, William G, 1982. "Causes of Increased Competition in the U.S. Economy, 1939-1980," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 64(4), pages 613-626, November.
    15. Habib Hussain Khan & Rubi Binit Ahmad & Chan Sok Gee, 2016. "Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 11(8), pages 1-24, August.
    16. Berger, Allen N & Hannan, Timothy H, 1992. "The Price-Concentration Relationship in Banking: A Reply," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(2), pages 376-379, May.
    17. Berger, Allen N. & Demsetz, Rebecca S. & Strahan, Philip E., 1999. "The consolidation of the financial services industry: Causes, consequences, and implications for the future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 135-194, February.
    18. Micco, Alejandro & Panizza, Ugo & Yanez, Monica, 2007. "Bank ownership and performance. Does politics matter?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 219-241, January.
    19. Michael Koetter & James W. Kolari & Laura Spierdijk, 2012. "Enjoying the Quiet Life under Deregulation? Evidence from Adjusted Lerner Indices for U.S. Banks," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 94(2), pages 462-480, May.
    20. Shaffer, Sherrill & DiSalvo, James, 1994. "Conduct in a banking duopoly," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 1063-1082, December.
    21. Pasiouras, Fotios & Kosmidou, Kyriaki, 2007. "Factors influencing the profitability of domestic and foreign commercial banks in the European Union," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 222-237, June.
    22. Park, Kang H. & Weber, William L., 2006. "Profitability of Korean banks: Test of market structure versus efficient structure," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 222-239.
    23. Jean Tirole, 1988. "The Theory of Industrial Organization," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262200716, December.
    24. Smirlock, Michael, 1985. "Evidence on the (Non) Relationship between Concentration and Profitability in Banking," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 17(1), pages 69-83, February.
    25. Berger, Allen N, et al, 2004. "Bank Concentration and Competition: An Evolution in the Making," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 433-451, June.
    26. Bonin, John P. & Hasan, Iftekhar & Wachtel, Paul, 2005. "Bank performance, efficiency and ownership in transition countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 31-53, January.
    27. De Bandt, Olivier & Davis, E. Philip, 2000. "Competition, contestability and market structure in European banking sectors on the eve of EMU," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 1045-1066, June.
    28. Calem, Paul S & Carlino, Gerald A, 1991. "The Concentration/Conduct Relationship in Bank Deposit Markets," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(2), pages 268-276, May.
    29. Allen N. Berger & Leora F. Klapper & Rima Turk-Ariss, 2017. "Bank competition and financial stability," Chapters, in: Jacob A. Bikker & Laura Spierdijk (ed.), Handbook of Competition in Banking and Finance, chapter 10, pages 185-204, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    30. Jacob A. Bikker & Sherrill Shaffer & Laura Spierdijk, 2012. "Assessing Competition with the Panzar-Rosse Model: The Role of Scale, Costs, and Equilibrium," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 94(4), pages 1025-1044, November.
    31. Amidu, Mohammed, 2013. "The effects of the structure of banking market and funding strategy on risk and return," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 143-155.
    32. Saeed Al-Muharrami & Kent Matthews, 2009. "Market power versus efficient-structure in Arab GCC banking," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(18), pages 1487-1496.
    33. Berger, Allen N. & Rosen, Richard J. & Udell, Gregory F., 2007. "Does market size structure affect competition? The case of small business lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 11-33, January.
    34. Wang, Ling, 2016. "Unconventional monetary policy and aggregate bank lending: Does financial structure matter?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 1060-1077.
    35. Christopoulos, Dimitris K. & Lolos, Sarantis E. G. & Tsionas, Efthymios G., 2002. "Efficiency of the Greek banking system in view of the EMU: a heteroscedastic stochastic frontier approach," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 24(9), pages 813-829, December.
    36. Fiona Tregenna, 2009. "The fat years: the structure and profitability of the US banking sector in the pre-crisis period," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(4), pages 609-632, July.
    37. Panzar, John C & Rosse, James N, 1987. "Testing for "Monopoly" Equilibrium," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(4), pages 443-456, June.
    38. Rhoades, Stephen A., 1985. "Market share as a source of market power: Implications and some evidence," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 343-363, December.
    39. Koutsomanoli-Filippaki, Anastasia & Mamatzakis, Emmanuel & Staikouras, Christos, 2009. "Structural reforms and banking efficiency in the new EU States," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 17-21.
    40. Jackson, William E, III, 1992. "The Price-Concentration Relationship in Banking: A Comment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(2), pages 373-376, May.
    41. Shepherd, William G, 1986. "Tobin's q and the Structure-Performance Relationship: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1205-1210, December.
    42. Demsetz, Harold, 1973. "Industry Structure, Market Rivalry, and Public Policy," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 1-9, April.
    43. David P. Mackinnon & James H. Dwyer, 1993. "Estimating Mediated Effects in Prevention Studies," Evaluation Review, , vol. 17(2), pages 144-158, April.
    44. Zhang, Jianhua & Jiang, Chunxia & Qu, Baozhi & Wang, Peng, 2013. "Market concentration, risk-taking, and bank performance: Evidence from emerging economies," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 149-157.
    45. Olivero, María Pía & Li, Yuan & Jeon, Bang Nam, 2011. "Consolidation in banking and the lending channel of monetary transmission: Evidence from Asia and Latin America," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 1034-1054, October.
    46. Drakos, Kostas, 2003. "Assessing the success of reform in transition banking 10 years later: an interest margins analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 309-317, April.
    47. Spence, A. Michael, 2009. "The financial and economic crisis and the developing world," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 502-508, July.
    48. Lloyd-Williams, D. M. & Molyneux, Phil & Thornton, John, 1994. "Market structure and performance in Spanish banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 433-443, May.
    49. Joe S. Bain, 1951. "Corrigendum"Relation of Profit Rate to Industry Concentration: American Manufacturing, 1936–1940" by Joe S. Bain (August 1951)," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 65(4), pages 602-602.
    50. Ravenscraft, David J., 1984. "Collusion vs. superiority : A Monte Carlo analysis," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 385-402, December.
    51. Bikker, Jacob A. & Haaf, Katharina, 2002. "Competition, concentration and their relationship: An empirical analysis of the banking industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(11), pages 2191-2214, November.
    52. Smirlock, Michael & Gilligan, Thomas & Marshall, William, 1984. "Tobin's q and the Structure-Performance Relationship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(5), pages 1051-1060, December.
    53. John Goddard & Phil Molyneux & John O. S. Wilson, 2004. "The profitability of european banks: a cross‐sectional and dynamic panel analysis," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 72(3), pages 363-381, June.
    54. Bourke, Philip, 1989. "Concentration and other determinants of bank profitability in Europe, North America and Australia," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 65-79, March.
    55. Honda, Yuzo, 2004. "Bank capital regulations and the transmission mechanism," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 675-688, September.
    56. Allen N. Berger & Asli Demirgüč-Kunt & Joseph G. Haubrich & Ross Levine, 2004. "Introduction: Bank concentration and competition: an evolution in the making," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 433-451.
    57. Homma, Tetsushi & Tsutsui, Yoshiro & Uchida, Hirofumi, 2014. "Firm growth and efficiency in the banking industry: A new test of the efficient structure hypothesis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 143-153.
    58. Brewer III, Elijah & Jackson III, William E., 2006. "A note on the "risk-adjusted" price-concentration relationship in banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 1041-1054, March.
    59. Turk Ariss, Rima, 2010. "On the implications of market power in banking: Evidence from developing countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 765-775, April.
    60. Shen, Chung-Hua & Huang, Ai-Hua, 2003. "Are performances of banks and firms linked? And if so, why?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 397-414, June.
    61. Goldberg, Lawrence G. & Rai, Anoop, 1996. "The structure-performance relationship for European banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 745-771, May.
    62. Khan, Habib Hussain & Ahmad, Rubi Binti & Gee, Chan Sok, 2016. "Bank competition and monetary policy transmission through the bank lending channel: Evidence from ASEAN," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 19-39.
    63. Mirzaei, Ali & Moore, Tomoe & Liu, Guy, 2013. "Does market structure matter on banks’ profitability and stability? Emerging vs. advanced economies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2920-2937.
    64. A. P. Lerner, 1934. "The Concept of Monopoly and the Measurement of Monopoly Power," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 1(3), pages 157-175.
    65. Smirlock, Michael & Gilligan, Thomas & Marshall, William, 1986. "Tobin's q and the Structure-Performance Relationship: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1211-1213, December.
    66. Ravenscraft, David J, 1983. "Structure-Profit Relationships at the Line of Business and Industry Level," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(1), pages 22-31, February.
    67. Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 25-51, May.
    68. Coccorese, Paolo, 2009. "Market power in local banking monopolies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1196-1210, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ali Nazaritehrani & Behzad Mashali, 2020. "Development of E-banking channels and market share in developing countries," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 6(1), pages 1-19, December.
    2. Suha Alawi, 2019. "Relationship between Capital Requirement, Ownership Structure, and Financial Performance in Saudi Arabian Listed Companies," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 9(9), pages 1077-1090, September.
    3. Chavosh Nejad, Mohammad & Mansour, Saeed & Karamipour, Azita, 2021. "An AHP-based multi-criteria model for assessment of the social sustainability of technology management process: A case study in banking industry," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    4. Faluk Shair & Na Sun & Sun Shaorong & Firdos Atta & Muhammad Hussain, 2019. "Impacts of risk and competition on the profitability of banks: Empirical evidence from Pakistan," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 14(11), pages 1-27, November.
    5. Khan, Habib Hussain & Kutan, Ali M., 2021. "Testing the structure-conduct-performance relationship for ASEAN: Addressing the issues in the panel mediation," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Khan, Habib Hussain & Kutan, Ali M. & Naz, Iram & Qureshi, Fiza, 2017. "Efficiency, growth and market power in the banking industry: New approach to efficient structure hypothesis," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 531-545.
    2. Tan, Yong, 2017. "The impacts of competition and shadow banking on profitability: Evidence from the Chinese banking industry," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 89-106.
    3. Fazelina Sahul Hamid, 2017. "The Effect of Market Structure on Banks’ Profitability and Stability: Evidence from ASEAN-5 Countries," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(4), pages 578-598, October.
    4. Mirzaei, Ali & Moore, Tomoe & Liu, Guy, 2013. "Does market structure matter on banks’ profitability and stability? Emerging vs. advanced economies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2920-2937.
    5. Coccorese, Paolo & Pellecchia, Alfonso, 2013. "Multimarket contact, competition and pricing in banking," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 187-214.
    6. Vera-Gilces, Paul & Camino-Mogro, Segundo & Ordeñana-Rodríguez, Xavier & Cornejo-Marcos, Gino, 2020. "A look inside banking profitability: Evidence from a dollarized emerging country," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 147-166.
    7. Homma, Tetsushi & Tsutsui, Yoshiro & Uchida, Hirofumi, 2014. "Firm growth and efficiency in the banking industry: A new test of the efficient structure hypothesis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 143-153.
    8. Elfeituri, Hatem, 2022. "Banking stability, institutional quality, market concentration, competition and political conflict in MENA," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    9. Tan, Yong, 2016. "The impacts of risk and competition on bank profitability in China," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 85-110.
    10. Faluk Shair & Na Sun & Sun Shaorong & Firdos Atta & Muhammad Hussain, 2019. "Impacts of risk and competition on the profitability of banks: Empirical evidence from Pakistan," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 14(11), pages 1-27, November.
    11. Muriithi, David, 2021. "Market structure and banks pricing behaviour: The case of Kenya," KBA Centre for Research on Financial Markets and Policy Working Paper Series 52, Kenya Bankers Association (KBA).
    12. González, Luis Otero & Razia, Alaa & Búa, Milagros Vivel & Sestayo, Rubén Lado, 2019. "Market structure, performance, and efficiency: Evidence from the MENA banking sector," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 84-101.
    13. Barbara Casu & Claudia Girardone & Philip Molyneux, 2012. "Is There a Conflict between Competition and Financial Stability?," Chapters, in: James R. Barth & Chen Lin & Clas Wihlborg (ed.), Research Handbook on International Banking and Governance, chapter 3, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    14. Naceur, Sami Ben & Omran, Mohammed, 2011. "The effects of bank regulations, competition, and financial reforms on banks' performance," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 1-20, March.
    15. Habib Hussain Khan & Rubi Binit Ahmad & Chan Sok Gee, 2016. "Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 11(8), pages 1-24, August.
    16. Coccorese, Paolo, 2012. "Banks as ‘fat cats’: Branching and price decisions in a two-stage model of competition," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 64(5), pages 338-363.
    17. Jordan Kjosevski & Mihail Petkovski, 2017. "Determinants of Bank Profitability in the Republic of Macedonia – a Panel Data Analysis," Economic Studies journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 3, pages 41-65.
    18. Huang, Tai-Hsin & Chiang, Dien-Lin & Chao, Shih-Wei, 2017. "A new approach to jointly estimating the Lerner index and cost efficiency for multi-output banks under a stochastic meta-frontier framework," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 212-226.
    19. Doris Neu Berger, 1998. "Industrial Organization of Banking: A Review," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 97-118.
    20. Mahbub, Tasmina & Matthews, Kent & Barker, Kate, 2019. "Other people’s money: The profit performance of Bangladeshi family dominated banks," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 103-112.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Market structure; Bank conduct; Bank performance; Structure–conduct–performance hypothesis; ASEAN;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jpolmo:v:40:y:2018:i:5:p:934-958. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505735 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505735 .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.