IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Capital flows, exchange rate flexibility, and the real exchange rate

  • Combes, Jean-Louis
  • Kinda, Tidiane
  • Plane, Patrick

This paper first analyzes the impact of capital inflows on the real effective exchange rate for a sample of 42 emerging and developing countries over the period 1980–2006. The results from the pooled mean group estimator show that both public and private inflows are associated with an appreciation of the real effective exchange rate. Among private inflows, portfolio investments display the biggest impact on the appreciation – almost seven times that of foreign direct investment or bank loans – while private transfers have the smallest effect. The paper also shows that a more flexible exchange rate regime, measured by different indicators, could effectively dampen the real appreciation associated with capital inflows, supporting countries’ competitiveness.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Macroeconomics.

Volume (Year): 34 (2012)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 1034-1043

in new window

Handle: RePEc:eee:jmacro:v:34:y:2012:i:4:p:1034-1043
Contact details of provider: Web page:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Gian-Maria Milesi-Ferretti & Philip R. Lane, 2000. "The Transfer Problem Revisited: Net Foreign Assets and Real Exchange Rates," IMF Working Papers 00/123, International Monetary Fund.
  2. M. Ayhan Kose & Eswar Prasad & Kenneth S. Rogoff & Shang-Jin Wei, 2006. "Financial Globalization: A Reappraisal," NBER Working Papers 12484, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Elbadawi, Ibrahim A. & Soto, Raimundo, 1994. "Capital flows and long-term equilibrium real exchange rates in Chile," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1306, The World Bank.
  4. Pentecost, Eric J. & Van Hooydonk, Charlotte & Van Poeck, Andre, 2001. "Measuring and estimating exchange market pressure in the EU," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 401-418, June.
  5. Smarzynska, Beata K., 2002. "Does foreign direct investment increase the productivity of domestic firms : in search of spillovers through backward linkages," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2923, The World Bank.
  6. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
  7. Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo & Leiderman, Leonardo, 1993. "El problema de la afluencia de capital: Conceptos y temas
    [The Capital Inflows Problem: Concepts and Issues]
    ," MPRA Paper 13682, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  8. Paul Cashin & Luis Felipe Céspedes & Ratna Sahay, 2003. "Commodity Currencies and the Real Exchange Rate," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 236, Central Bank of Chile.
  9. Tidiane Kinda, 2012. "Foreign ownership, sales to multinationals and firm efficiency: the case of Brazil, Morocco, Pakistan, South Africa and Vietnam," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(6), pages 551-555, April.
  10. Elbadawi, Ibrahim A & Soto, Raimundo, 1997. "Real Exchange Rates and Macroeconomic Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa and Other Developing Countries," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 6(3), pages 74-120, Supplemen.
  11. Leonardo Leiderman & Guillermo A. Calvo & Carmen Reinhart, 1994. "Entradas de capitales a países en desarrollo en los años 90: causas y efectos," Research Department Publications 4003, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  12. Stephen J. Turnovsky & Serpil Tekin & Valerie Cerra, 2008. "Foreign Aid and Real Exchange Rate Adjustments in a Financially Constrained Dependent Economy," IMF Working Papers 08/204, International Monetary Fund.
  13. Leonardo Leiderman & Carmen Reinhart & Guillermo Calvo, 1992. "Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America: The Role of External Factors," IMF Working Papers 92/62, International Monetary Fund.
  14. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1995. "Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 79-113, July.
  15. Chen, Yu-chin & Rogoff, Kenneth, 2003. "Commodity currencies," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 133-160, May.
  16. Guillermo A. Calvo & Leonardo Leiderman & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1994. "Inflows of Capital to Developing Countries in the 1990s: Causes and Effects," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 5718, Inter-American Development Bank.
  17. Mumtaz Hussain & Andrew Berg & Shekhar Aiyar, 2009. "The Macroeconomic Management of Increased Aid: Policy Lessons from Recent Experience," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(s1), pages 491-509, 08.
  18. Pedroni, Peter, 1999. " Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 653-70, Special I.
  19. Raghuram G. Rajan & Arvind Subramanian, 2005. "What Undermines Aid's Impact on Growth?," NBER Working Papers 11657, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Luca Antonio Ricci & Jaewoo Lee & Gian-Maria Milesi-Ferretti, 2008. "Real Exchange Rates and Fundamentals: A Cross-Country Perspective," IMF Working Papers 08/13, International Monetary Fund.
  21. Kinda, Tidiane, 2008. "Infrastructures et flux de capitaux privés vers les pays en développement
    [Infrastructure and private capital flows in developing countries]
    ," MPRA Paper 19158, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  22. Connel Fullenkamp & Thomas F. Cosimano & Michael T. Gapen & Ralph Chami & Peter Montiel & Adolfo Barajas, 2008. "Macroeconomic Consequences of Remittances," IMF Occasional Papers 259, International Monetary Fund.
  23. Lucas, Robert E B & Stark, Oded, 1985. "Motivations to Remit: Evidence from Botswana," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(5), pages 901-18, October.
  24. Nyoni, Timothy S., 1998. "Foreign Aid and Economic Performance in Tanzania," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1235-1240, July.
  25. Agenor, Pierre-Richard, 1998. "Capital inflows, external shocks, and the real exchange rate," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 713-740, October.
  26. Emmanuel K. K. Lartey, 2008. "Capital Inflows, Dutch Disease Effects, and Monetary Policy in a Small Open Economy," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(5), pages 971-989, November.
  27. Emmanuel K. K. Lartey, 2007. "Capital inflows and the real exchange rate: An empirical study of sub-Saharan Africa," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(3), pages 337-357.
  28. Guillermo A. Calvo, 1991. "The Perils of Sterilization," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 38(4), pages 921-926, December.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jmacro:v:34:y:2012:i:4:p:1034-1043. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.