Capital flows and long-term equilibrium real exchange rates in Chile
In the context of an empirical model, the authors examine the impact of capital flows, among other fundamentals, on long-term exchange rates in Chile. The real exchange rate and its fundamentals were found to be cointegrated during 1960-92. This cointegration allows a reinterpretation of uni-equatorial estimates of the equilibrium real exchange rate (ERER) to be consistent with long-run forward-looking behavioral models. It also permits the estimation of an error-correction model capable of disentangling short-run from long-run shocks in observed movements of the ERER. The nonstationary nature of the fundamentals allows one to decompose innovations into permanent and transitory components - to get an empirical measure of the sustainability of the fundamental with which the ERER is determined. In general, the estimate of the cointegration of the ERER and its corresponding dynamic error-correction specification corroborates the theoretical model and produces fairly consistent results. The derived ERER index and the corresponding real exchange rate misalignment (for given sustainable values of the fundamentals) successfully reproduce the salient episodes in Chile's recent macroeconomic history. Capital flows are disaggregated into four components: 1) short-term capital flows; 2) long-term capital flows; 3) portfolio investment; and 4) foreign direct investment. As expected from economic theory, short-term capital flows and portfolio investment were found to have no effect on the ERER (although they can affect the real exchange rate in the short run). But long-term capital inflows and foreign direct investment have a significant appreciating effect on the ERER. To the extent that the recent inflow of capital to Chile is dominated by long-term capital flows that are judged to be sustainable, an important part of the ensuing appreciation of the real exchange rate is consistent with equilibrium behavior - reducing the need for counterbalancing exchange rate on macroeconomic policies.
|Date of creation:||30 Jun 1994|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- John Y. Campbell & Pierre Perron, 1991.
"Pitfalls and Opportunities: What Macroeconomists Should Know About Unit Roots,"
in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1991, Volume 6, pages 141-220
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Campbell, John & Perron, Pierre, 1991. "Pitfalls and Opportunities: What Macroeconomists Should Know about Unit Roots," Scholarly Articles 3374863, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- John Y. Campbell & Pierre Perron, 1991. "Pitfalls and Opportunities: What Macroeconomists Should Know About Unit Roots," NBER Technical Working Papers 0100, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Campbell, J.Y. & Perron, P., 1991. "Pitfalls and Opportunities: What Macroeconomics should know about unit roots," Papers 360, Princeton, Department of Economics - Econometric Research Program.
- Maurice Obstfeld, 1983.
"Intertemporal Price Speculation and the Optimal Current-Account Deficit,"
NBER Working Papers
1100, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Obstfeld, Maurice, 1983. "Intertemporal price speculation and the optimal current-account deficit," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 135-145, August.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo & Leiderman, Leonardo, 1993.
"“Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America: The Role of External Factors,"
7125, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Guillermo A. Calvo & Leonardo Leiderman & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1993. "Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America: The Role of External Factors," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(1), pages 108-151, March.
- Leonardo Leiderman & Carmen Reinhart & Guillermo Calvo, 1992. "Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America; The Role of External Factors," IMF Working Papers 92/62, International Monetary Fund.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo & Leiderman, Leonardo, 1993.
"Af1uencia de capital y apreciacion del tipo de cambio real en America Latina: E1 papel de los factores externos
[Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America: The Role of Ex," MPRA Paper 13681, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Mundlak, Yair & Cavallo, Domingo & Domenech, Roberto, 1989. "Agriculture and economic growth in Argentina, 1913-84:," Research reports 76, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Granger, C. W. J. & Newbold, P., 1974. "Spurious regressions in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 111-120, July.
- Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus & Serven, Luis & DEC, 1994. "Dynamic response to external shocks in classical and Keynesian economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1300, The World Bank.
- Corbo, Vittorio, 1985. "International Prices, Wages and Inflation in an Open Economy: A Chilean Model," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(4), pages 564-73, November.
- Campbell, John Y & Mankiw, N Gregory, 1987.
"Permanent and Transitory Components in Macroeconomic Fluctuations,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 77(2), pages 111-17, May.
- John Y. Campbell & N. Gregory Mankiw, 1987. "Permanent and Transitory Components in Macroeconomic Fluctuations," NBER Working Papers 2169, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mankiw, N. Gregory & Campbell, John, 1987. "Permanent and Transitory Components in Macroeconomic Fluctuations," Scholarly Articles 3207697, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Patricio Arrau & Jorge Quiroz & Rómulo Chumacero, 1992. "Ahorro Fiscal y Tipo de Cambio Real," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 29(88), pages 349-386.
- Sebastian Edwards, 1985. "The Behavior of Interest Rates and Real Exchange Rates During a Liberalization Episode: The Case of Chile 1973-83," NBER Working Papers 1702, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rodriguez, Carlos Alfredo, 1989. "Macroeconomic policies for structural adjustment," Policy Research Working Paper Series 247, The World Bank.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1306. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.