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A numerical evaluation of the sustainable size of the primary deficit in Japan

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  • Arai, Real
  • Ueda, Junji

Abstract

We investigate how large a primary deficit-to-GDP ratio Japan’s government can sustain. For this investigation, we construct an overlapping generations model in which multi-generational households live and the government maintains a constant ratio of the primary deficit to GDP. We numerically show that the primary deficit cannot be sustained unless the rate of economic growth is unrealistically high, which is more than five percent according to our settings. Our result implies that Japan’s government needs to achieve a positive primary balance in the long run in order to avoid the divergence of the public debt-to-GDP ratio.

Suggested Citation

  • Arai, Real & Ueda, Junji, 2013. "A numerical evaluation of the sustainable size of the primary deficit in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 59-75.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jjieco:v:30:y:2013:i:c:p:59-75
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jjie.2013.10.003
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:jjieco:v:46:y:2017:i:c:p:17-26 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Kitao, Sagiri, 2015. "Pension reform and individual retirement accounts in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 111-126.
    3. Miyazawa, Kensuke & Yamada, Junji, 2015. "The growth strategy of Abenomics and fiscal consolidation," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 82-99.
    4. Nakajima, Tomoyuki & Takahashi, Shuhei, 2017. "The optimum quantity of debt for Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 17-26.
    5. Ko, Jun-Hyung & Morita, Hiroshi, 2015. "Fiscal sustainability and regime shifts in Japan," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 364-375.
    6. Ichiro Muto & Takemasa Oda & Nao Sudo, 2016. "Macroeconomic Impact of Population Aging in Japan: A Perspective from an Overlapping Generations Model," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 64(3), pages 408-442, August.
    7. Tomomi Miyazaki & Kazuki Onji, 2017. "The Sustainability of Japan's Government Debt: A Review," Discussion Papers 1716, Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University.
    8. Koichi Futagami & Kunihiko Konishi, 2018. "Dynamic Analysis of Budget Policy Rules in Japan," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 18-E-3, Bank of Japan.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Fiscal sustainability; Public debt; Primary deficit; Economic growth;

    JEL classification:

    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • H62 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Deficit; Surplus
    • H63 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Debt; Debt Management; Sovereign Debt
    • H68 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Forecasts of Budgets, Deficits, and Debt

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