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The unintended effects of place based programs: Fertility and health effects of urban empowerment zones

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  • Grossman, Daniel

Abstract

Whether place-based welfare programs affect fertility and health outcomes is an understudied question. I estimate the health impacts of the Empowerment Zone (EZ) program—a federal program that gave sizeable grants and tax breaks to certain high-poverty census tracts in selected cities. Using difference-in-differences methods, I find that the EZ program decreased fertility rates by 11 percent and improved birth outcomes. Compositional changes in fertility likely cannot explain changes in infant health. Recent research on the later-life impacts of low birth weight suggest that the health impacts of this program may have substantial long-term benefits.

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  • Grossman, Daniel, 2019. "The unintended effects of place based programs: Fertility and health effects of urban empowerment zones," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 114-127.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jhecon:v:63:y:2019:i:c:p:114-127
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2018.11.005
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Fertility; Health economics; Birth outcomes; Empowerment zones; Fetal origins hypothesis;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • I15 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health and Economic Development
    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health

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