IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Perceived government initiatives: Scale development, validation and impact on consumers' pro-environmental behaviour


  • Mohanty, Pradeep Kumar
  • Patro, Archana
  • Harindranath, R.M.
  • Senthil Kumar, N.
  • Panda, Debadutta Kumar
  • Dubey, Ritesh


Recent Government Initiatives towards popularising energy efficient appliances in India have created public consciousness about energy efficiency and cost-saving. This study examines the public perception towards energy policy and the subsequent consumer purchase behaviour towards energy efficient aplliances. The study developed a new scale on perceived government initiatives from consumers' perspective by exploring the social and psychological behaviour and subsequently operationalizing the construct. The reliability and validity of the developed construct, and their impact on consumers' pro environmental behaviour were estimated using maximum likelihood estimation. Public expectations from such government initiatives have been broadly categorized into four dimensions such as social influence, optimism, purchase preferences, and overall attitude. Overall findings reveal that the perceived government initiatives positively influences consumers' pro environmental behaviour. The study emphasizes the need for coordinated planning between manufacturers and the policy makers to further popularize energy efficient appliances among the public.

Suggested Citation

  • Mohanty, Pradeep Kumar & Patro, Archana & Harindranath, R.M. & Senthil Kumar, N. & Panda, Debadutta Kumar & Dubey, Ritesh, 2021. "Perceived government initiatives: Scale development, validation and impact on consumers' pro-environmental behaviour," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 158(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:158:y:2021:i:c:s0301421521004043
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112534

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Charlier, Dorothée & Risch, Anna, 2012. "Evaluation of the impact of environmental public policy measures on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the French residential sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 170-184.
    2. Jia, Jun-Jun & Xu, Jin-Hua & Fan, Ying, 2018. "Public acceptance of household energy-saving measures in Beijing: Heterogeneous preferences and policy implications," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 487-499.
    3. Niranjan Narasimhan & Kumar Bhaskar & Srinivas Prakhya, 2010. "Existential Beliefs and Values," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 96(3), pages 369-382, October.
    4. Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, 1981. "Voluntary Simplicity Lifestyles and Energy Conservation," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(3), pages 243-252, December.
    5. Ajzen, Icek, 1991. "The theory of planned behavior," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 179-211, December.
    6. Mills, Evan, 2003. "The insurance and risk management industries: new players in the delivery of energy-efficient and renewable energy products and services," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(12), pages 1257-1272, September.
    7. Wiel, Stephen & McMahon, James E., 2003. "Governments should implement energy-efficiency standards and labels--cautiously," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(13), pages 1403-1415, October.
    8. Jarvis, Cheryl Burke & MacKenzie, Scott B & Podsakoff, Philip M, 2003. "A Critical Review of Construct Indicators and Measurement Model Misspecification in Marketing and Consumer Research," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 30(2), pages 199-218, September.
    9. Chai, Kah-Hin & Yeo, Catrina, 2012. "Overcoming energy efficiency barriers through systems approach—A conceptual framework," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 460-472.
    10. Cia Alves, Elia Elisa & Steiner, Andrea & de Almeida Medeiros, Marcelo & da Silva, Marcelo Eduardo Alves, 2019. "From a breeze to the four winds: A panel analysis of the international diffusion of renewable energy incentive policies (2005–2015)," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 317-329.
    11. Armstrong, J. Scott & Overton, Terry S., 1977. "Estimating Nonresponse Bias in Mail Surveys," MPRA Paper 81694, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Cass R. Sunstein & Richard H. Thaler, 2003. "Libertarian paternalism is not an oxymoron," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, vol. 48(Jun).
    13. Galarraga, Ibon & Abadie, Luis M. & Kallbekken, Steffen, 2016. "Designing incentive schemes for promoting energy-efficient appliances: A new methodology and a case study for Spain," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 24-36.
    14. de la Rue du Can, Stephane & Leventis, Greg & Phadke, Amol & Gopal, Anand, 2014. "Design of incentive programs for accelerating penetration of energy-efficient appliances," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 56-66.
    15. Egnér, Filippa & Trosvik, Lina, 2018. "Electric vehicle adoption in Sweden and the impact of local policy instruments," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 584-596.
    16. Wang, Zhaohua & Wang, Xiaomeng & Guo, Dongxue, 2017. "Policy implications of the purchasing intentions towards energy-efficient appliances among China’s urban residents: Do subsidies work?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 430-439.
    17. Richard H. Thaler & Cass R. Sunstein, 2003. "Libertarian Paternalism," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(2), pages 175-179, May.
    18. Curtius, Hans Christoph & Hille, Stefanie Lena & Berger, Christian & Hahnel, Ulf Joachim Jonas & Wüstenhagen, Rolf, 2018. "Shotgun or snowball approach? Accelerating the diffusion of rooftop solar photovoltaics through peer effects and social norms," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 596-602.
    19. West, J. & Bailey, I. & Winter, M., 2010. "Renewable energy policy and public perceptions of renewable energy: A cultural theory approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 5739-5748, October.
    20. Cheng Li, 2013. "Little's test of missing completely at random," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 13(4), pages 795-809, December.
    21. Allcott, Hunt, 2011. "Social norms and energy conservation," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(9-10), pages 1082-1095, October.
    22. Hallsworth, Michael & List, John A. & Metcalfe, Robert D. & Vlaev, Ivo, 2017. "The behavioralist as tax collector: Using natural field experiments to enhance tax compliance," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 14-31.
    23. Sierzchula, William & Bakker, Sjoerd & Maat, Kees & van Wee, Bert, 2014. "The influence of financial incentives and other socio-economic factors on electric vehicle adoption," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 183-194.
    24. Doblinger, Claudia & Surana, Kavita & Anadon, Laura Diaz, 2019. "Governments as partners: The role of alliances in U.S. cleantech startup innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(6), pages 1458-1475.
    25. Galarraga, Ibon & González-Eguino, Mikel & Markandya, Anil, 2011. "Willingness to pay and price elasticities of demand for energy-efficient appliances: Combining the hedonic approach and demand systems," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(S1), pages 66-74.
    26. Debadutta Panda & Sriharsha Reddy, 2020. "Predictors of microcredit default in Indian self‐help groups," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 91(2), pages 303-318, June.
    27. Agostini, Lara & Filippini, Roberto & Nosella, Anna, 2015. "Management and performance of strategic multipartner SME networks," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 169(C), pages 376-390.
    28. Sami Alsmadi & Ibrahim Alnawas, 2019. "Consumer Rights Paradigm: Development of the Construct in the Jordanian Context," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 159(3), pages 777-794, October.
    29. Yi, Youjae & Gong, Taeshik, 2013. "Customer value co-creation behavior: Scale development and validation," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 66(9), pages 1279-1284.
    30. Thapar, Sapan, 2020. "Energy consumption behavior: A data-based analysis of urban Indian households," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 143(C).
    31. Debadutta K. Panda, 2018. "Entrepreneurial orientation, intermediation services, microfinance, and microenterprises," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 39(2), pages 253-265, March.
    32. Ertz, Myriam & Karakas, Fahri & Sarigöllü, Emine, 2016. "Exploring pro-environmental behaviors of consumers: An analysis of contextual factors, attitude, and behaviors," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(10), pages 3971-3980.
    33. Allcott, Hunt, 2011. "Social norms and energy conservation," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(9), pages 1082-1095.
    34. Seol-A Kwon & Seoyong Kim & Jae Eun Lee, 2019. "Analyzing the Determinants of Individual Action on Climate Change by Specifying the Roles of Six Values in South Korea," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(7), pages 1-24, March.
    35. Guan, JianCheng & Yam, Richard C.M., 2015. "Effects of government financial incentives on firms’ innovation performance in China: Evidences from Beijing in the 1990s," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 273-282.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Ewa Jaska & Agnieszka Werenowska & Agata Balińska, 2022. "Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Behaviors of Generation Z in Poland Stimulated by Mobile Applications," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(21), pages 1-16, October.
    2. Yongliang Yang & Yuting Zhu & Xiaopeng Wang & Yi Li, 2022. "The Perception of Environmental Information Disclosure on Rural Residents’ Pro-Environmental Behavior," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(13), pages 1-22, June.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Rachel Croson & Nicolas Treich, 2014. "Behavioral Environmental Economics: Promises and Challenges," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 58(3), pages 335-351, July.
    2. Elena Kantorowicz‐Reznichenko & Jaroslaw Kantorowicz, 2021. "To follow or not to follow the herd? Transparency and social norm nudges," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 74(3), pages 362-377, August.
    3. Curtin, Joseph & McInerney, Celine & Ó Gallachóir, Brian, 2017. "Financial incentives to mobilise local citizens as investors in low-carbon technologies: A systematic literature review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 534-547.
    4. Beshears, John & Kosowsky, Harry, 2020. "Nudging: Progress to date and future directions," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 161(S), pages 3-19.
    5. Ajla Cosic & Hana Cosic & Sebastian Ille, 2018. "Can nudges affect students' green behaviour? A field experiment," Journal of Behavioral Economics for Policy, Society for the Advancement of Behavioral Economics (SABE), vol. 2(1), pages 107-111, March.
    6. Cristiano Codagnone & Giuseppe Alessandro Veltri & Francesco Bogliacino & Francisco Lupiáñez-Villanueva & George Gaskell & Andriy Ivchenko & Pietro Ortoleva & Francesco Mureddu, 2016. "Labels as nudges? An experimental study of car eco-labels," Economia Politica: Journal of Analytical and Institutional Economics, Springer;Fondazione Edison, vol. 33(3), pages 403-432, December.
    7. Joshua Henkel & Georg Schwesinger, 2020. "Establishing Sustainable Consumption - How Future Policies Can Channel Consumer Preferences," Bremen Papers on Economics & Innovation 2007, University of Bremen, Faculty of Business Studies and Economics.
    8. Häckel, Björn & Pfosser, Stefan & Tränkler, Timm, 2017. "Explaining the energy efficiency gap - Expected Utility Theory versus Cumulative Prospect Theory," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 414-426.
    9. Guy Meunier & Ingmar Schumacher, 2020. "The importance of considering optimal government policy when social norms matter for the private provision of public goods," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 22(3), pages 630-655, June.
    10. Christian Cordes & Joshua Henkel, 2022. "Enhanced "Green Nudging": Tapping the Channels of Cultural Transmission," Bremen Papers on Economics & Innovation 2208, University of Bremen, Faculty of Business Studies and Economics.
    11. Georg Liebig & Jens Rommel, 2014. "Active and Forced Choice for Overcoming Status Quo Bias: A Field Experiment on the Adoption of “No junk mail” Stickers in Berlin, Germany," Journal of Consumer Policy, Springer, vol. 37(3), pages 423-435, September.
    12. Laura Abrardi, 2019. "Behavioral barriers and the energy efficiency gap: a survey of the literature," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 46(1), pages 25-43, March.
    13. Ghesla, Claus & Grieder, Manuel & Schubert, Renate, 2020. "Nudging the poor and the rich – A field study on the distributional effects of green electricity defaults," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(C).
    14. Ekström, Mathias, 2021. "The (un)compromise effect: How suggested alternatives can promote active choice," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 90(C).
    15. Egebark, Johan & Ekström, Mathias, 2016. "Can indifference make the world greener?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 1-13.
    16. Aydin, Erdal & Correa, Santiago Bohórquez & Brounen, Dirk, 2019. "Energy performance certification and time on the market," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 98(C).
    17. Schubert, Christian, 2017. "Green nudges: Do they work? Are they ethical?," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 329-342.
    18. Momsen, Katharina & Stoerk, Thomas, 2014. "From intention to action: Can nudges help consumers to choose renewable energy?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 376-382.
    19. Rosanna Nagtegaal & Lars Tummers & Mirko Noordegraaf & Victor Bekkers, 2019. "Nudging healthcare professionals towards evidence-based medicine: A systematic scoping review," Journal of Behavioral Public Administration, Center for Experimental and Behavioral Public Administration, vol. 2(2).
    20. Leonhard Lades & Federica Nova, 2022. "Ethical Considerations when using Behavioural Insights to Reduce Peoples Meat Consumption," Working Papers 202209, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:158:y:2021:i:c:s0301421521004043. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.