IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/ecofin/v50y2019ics1062940818305473.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Competition, efficiency and stability: An empirical study of East Asian commercial banks

Author

Listed:
  • Phan, Hien Thu
  • Anwar, Sajid
  • Alexander, W. Robert J.
  • Phan, Hanh Thi My

Abstract

This paper examines the relationships between competition, efficiency and stability in the banking systems of four East Asian countries (China, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Vietnam) over 2004–2014. The results support the traditional competition–fragility view and suggest that an increase in competition may result in a decrease in stability. Similarly, credit risk, bank size and market concentration may positively affect bank stability. By contrast, banks with higher liquidity risk and revenue diversification may become less stable. Empirical analysis suggests that banking sector stability was adversely affected by the global financial crisis. Listed banks may be less stable than their non-listed peers. The macroeconomic environment (measured in terms of inflation and GDP growth) also affects bank stability. Additionally, some important policy implications with respect to improving bank stability are recommended.

Suggested Citation

  • Phan, Hien Thu & Anwar, Sajid & Alexander, W. Robert J. & Phan, Hanh Thi My, 2019. "Competition, efficiency and stability: An empirical study of East Asian commercial banks," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecofin:v:50:y:2019:i:c:s1062940818305473
    DOI: 10.1016/j.najef.2019.100990
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1062940818305473
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Fungáčová, Zuzana & Pessarossi, Pierre & Weill, Laurent, 2013. "Is bank competition detrimental to efficiency? Evidence from China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 121-134.
    2. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-1054, July.
    3. Beck, Thorsten & De Jonghe, Olivier & Schepens, Glenn, 2013. "Bank competition and stability: Cross-country heterogeneity," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 218-244.
    4. Hong Liu & Phil Molyneux & John O. S. Wilson, 2013. "Competition And Stability In European Banking: A Regional Analysis," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 81(2), pages 176-201, March.
    5. Tabak, Benjamin M. & Fazio, Dimas M. & Cajueiro, Daniel O., 2012. "The relationship between banking market competition and risk-taking: Do size and capitalization matter?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 3366-3381.
    6. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    7. David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
    8. Kabir, Md. Nurul & Worthington, Andrew C., 2017. "The ‘competition–stability/fragility’ nexus: A comparative analysis of Islamic and conventional banks," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 111-128.
    9. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüč-Kunt & Vojislav Maksimovic, 2004. "Bank competition and access to finance: international evidence," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 627-654.
    10. Weill, Laurent, 2013. "Bank competition in the EU: How has it evolved?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 100-112.
    11. Agoraki, Maria-Eleni K. & Delis, Manthos D. & Pasiouras, Fotios, 2011. "Regulations, competition and bank risk-taking in transition countries," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 38-48, January.
    12. Kneip, Alois & Simar, Léopold & Wilson, Paul W., 2008. "Asymptotics And Consistent Bootstraps For Dea Estimators In Nonparametric Frontier Models," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(6), pages 1663-1697, December.
    13. Luo, Yun & Tanna, Sailesh & De Vita, Glauco, 2016. "Financial openness, risk and bank efficiency: Cross-country evidence," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 132-148.
    14. Soedarmono, Wahyoe & Machrouh, Fouad & Tarazi, Amine, 2011. "Bank market power, economic growth and financial stability: Evidence from Asian banks," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 460-470.
    15. Berger, Allen N. & Mester, Loretta J., 1997. "Inside the black box: What explains differences in the efficiencies of financial institutions?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(7), pages 895-947, July.
    16. Shaddady, Ali & Moore, Tomoe, 2019. "Investigation of the effects of financial regulation and supervision on bank stability: The application of CAMELS-DEA to quantile regressions," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 96-116.
    17. Zhang, Jianhua & Jiang, Chunxia & Qu, Baozhi & Wang, Peng, 2013. "Market concentration, risk-taking, and bank performance: Evidence from emerging economies," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 149-157.
    18. Fiordelisi, Franco & Marques-Ibanez, David & Molyneux, Phil, 2011. "Efficiency and risk in European banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 1315-1326, May.
    19. Kaniska Dam & Marc Escrihuela-Villar & Santiago Sánchez-Pagés, 2015. "On the relationship between market power and bank risk taking," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 114(2), pages 177-204, March.
    20. Berger, Allen N. & DeYoung, Robert, 1997. "Problem loans and cost efficiency in commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 849-870, June.
    21. Niels Hermes & Aljar Meesters, 2015. "Financial liberalization, financial regulation and bank efficiency: a multi-country analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(21), pages 2154-2172, May.
    22. Jeon, Jin Q. & Lim, Kwang Kyu, 2013. "Bank competition and financial stability: A comparison of commercial banks and mutual savings banks in Korea," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 253-272.
    23. Thorsten Beck & Ross Levine & Alexey Levkov, 2010. "Big Bad Banks? The Winners and Losers from Bank Deregulation in the United States," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(5), pages 1637-1667, October.
    24. Ka Kei Chan & Alistair Milne, 2014. "Bank competition, fire-sales and financial stability," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(10), pages 874-891, October.
    25. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    26. Tan, Yong & Floros, Christos, 2013. "Risk, capital and efficiency in Chinese banking," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 378-393.
    27. Williams, Jonathan, 2004. "Determining management behaviour in European banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(10), pages 2427-2460, October.
    28. Simon Kwan & Robert Eisenbeis, 1997. "Bank Risk, Capitalization, and Operating Efficiency," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 12(2), pages 117-131, October.
    29. Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 2013. "Are banks too big to fail or too big to save? International evidence from equity prices and CDS spreads," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 875-894.
    30. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1995. "The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 407-443.
    31. David Martinez-Miera & Rafael Repullo, 2010. "Does Competition Reduce the Risk of Bank Failure?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(10), pages 3638-3664, October.
    32. Caminal, Ramon & Matutes, Carmen, 2002. "Market power and banking failures," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(9), pages 1341-1361, November.
    33. Lin, Shu Ling & Penm, Jack H.W. & Gong, Shang-Chi & Chang, Ching-Shan, 2005. "Risk-based capital adequacy in assessing on insolvency-risk and financial performances in Taiwan's banking industry," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 111-153, March.
    34. Allen, Franklin & Gale, Douglas, 2004. "Competition and Financial Stability," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 453-480, June.
    35. Anginer, Deniz & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Zhu, Min, 2014. "How does competition affect bank systemic risk?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 1-26.
    36. Soedarmono, Wahyoe & Machrouh, Fouad & Tarazi, Amine, 2013. "Bank competition, crisis and risk taking: Evidence from emerging markets in Asia," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 196-221.
    37. Klaus Schaeck & Martin Cihak & Simon Wolfe, 2009. "Are Competitive Banking Systems More Stable?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(4), pages 711-734, June.
    38. Uhde, André & Heimeshoff, Ulrich, 2009. "Consolidation in banking and financial stability in Europe: Empirical evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1299-1311, July.
    39. Charnes, A. & Cooper, W. W. & Rhodes, E., 1978. "Measuring the efficiency of decision making units," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 2(6), pages 429-444, November.
    40. Allen N. Berger & Leora F. Klapper & Rima Turk-Ariss, 2017. "Bank competition and financial stability," Chapters, in: Jacob A. Bikker & Laura Spierdijk (ed.),Handbook of Competition in Banking and Finance, chapter 10, pages 185-204, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    41. Adnan Kasman & Oscar Carvallo, 2014. "Financial stability, competition and efficiency in Latin American and Caribbean banking," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 17, pages 301-324, November.
    42. Thomas Kick & Esteban Prieto, 2015. "Bank Risk and Competition: Evidence from Regional Banking Markets," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 19(3), pages 1185-1222.
    43. Jiménez, Gabriel & Lopez, Jose A. & Saurina, Jesús, 2013. "How does competition affect bank risk-taking?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 185-195.
    44. Olga Pak & Mira Nurmakhanova, 2013. "The Effect of Market Power on Bank Credit Risk-Taking and Bank Stability in Kazakhstan," Transition Studies Review, Springer;Central Eastern European University Network (CEEUN), vol. 20(3), pages 335-350, November.
    45. Juan Fernández de Guevara & Joaquín Maudos & Francisco Pérez, 2005. "Market Power in European Banking Sectors," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 27(2), pages 109-137, April.
    46. Craig O. Brown & I. Serdar Dinç, 2011. "Too Many to Fail? Evidence of Regulatory Forbearance When the Banking Sector Is Weak," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(4), pages 1378-1405.
    47. Tara Deelchand & Carol Padgett, 2009. "The Relationship between Risk, Capital and Efficiency: Evidence from Japanese Cooperative Banks," ICMA Centre Discussion Papers in Finance icma-dp2009-12, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    48. Adams, Charles, 2008. "Emerging East Asian Banking Systems Ten Years after the 1997/98 Crisis," Working Papers on Regional Economic Integration 16, Asian Development Bank.
    49. Tabak, Benjamin M. & Gomes, Guilherme M.R. & da Silva Medeiros, Maurício, 2015. "The impact of market power at bank level in risk-taking: The Brazilian case," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 154-165.
    50. Sok-Gee Chan & Mohd Zaini Abd Karim, 2016. "Financial market regulation, country governance, and bank efficiency: Evidence from East Asian countries," Contemporary Economics, University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw., vol. 10(1), March.
    51. Yong Tan & John Anchor, 2017. "Does competition only impact on insolvency risk? New evidence from the Chinese banking industry," International Journal of Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 13(3), pages 332-354, June.
    52. John H. Boyd & Stanley L. Graham, 1986. "Risk, regulation, and bank holding company expansion into nonbanking," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, vol. 10(Spr), pages 2-17.
    53. Keeley, Michael C, 1990. "Deposit Insurance, Risk, and Market Power in Banking," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1183-1200, December.
    54. John H. Boyd & Gianni De Nicoló, 2005. "The Theory of Bank Risk Taking and Competition Revisited," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(3), pages 1329-1343, June.
    55. Hong Liu & Philip Molyneux & Linh H. Nguyen, 2012. "Competition and risk in South East Asian commercial banking," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(28), pages 3627-3644, October.
    56. Fu, Xiaoqing (Maggie) & Lin, Yongjia (Rebecca) & Molyneux, Philip, 2014. "Bank competition and financial stability in Asia Pacific," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 64-77.
    57. Brissimis, Sophocles N. & Delis, Manthos D. & Papanikolaou, Nikolaos I., 2008. "Exploring the nexus between banking sector reform and performance: Evidence from newly acceded EU countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(12), pages 2674-2683, December.
    58. Turk Ariss, Rima, 2010. "On the implications of market power in banking: Evidence from developing countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 765-775, April.
    59. Moshirian, Fariborz, 2008. "Financial services in an increasingly integrated global financial market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 2288-2292, November.
    60. Schaeck, K. & Cihák, M., 2010. "Competition, Efficiency, and Soundness in Banking : An Industrial Organization Perspective," Discussion Paper 2010-68S, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    61. Yener Altunbas & Santiago Carbo & Edward P.M. Gardener & Philip Molyneux, 2007. "Examining the Relationships between Capital, Risk and Efficiency in European Banking," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 13(1), pages 49-70, January.
    62. González, Luis Otero & Razia, Alaa & Búa, Milagros Vivel & Sestayo, Rubén Lado, 2017. "Competition, concentration and risk taking in Banking sector of MENA countries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 591-604.
    63. Kouki, Imen & Al-Nasser, Amjad, 2017. "The implication of banking competition: Evidence from African countries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(PB), pages 878-895.
    64. Cheng, Gong, 2015. "The Global Financial Safety Net through the Prism of G20 Summits," MPRA Paper 68070, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Nov 2015.
    65. Delis, Manthos & Iosifidi, Maria & Tsionas, Mike G, 2017. "Endogenous bank risk and efficiency," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 260(1), pages 376-387.
    66. R. D. Banker & A. Charnes & W. W. Cooper, 1984. "Some Models for Estimating Technical and Scale Inefficiencies in Data Envelopment Analysis," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 30(9), pages 1078-1092, September.
    67. Md. Dulal Miah & Kashfia Sharmeen, 2015. "Relationship between capital, risk and efficiency: A comparative study between Islamic and conventional banks of Bangladesh," International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 8(2), pages 203-221, June.
    68. Klaus Schaeck & Martin Cihák, 2014. "Competition, Efficiency, and Stability in Banking," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 43(1), pages 215-241, March.
    69. Nguyen, My & Skully, Michael & Perera, Shrimal, 2012. "Market power, revenue diversification and bank stability: Evidence from selected South Asian countries," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 897-912.
    70. Amidu, Mohammed, 2013. "The effects of the structure of banking market and funding strategy on risk and return," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 143-155.
    71. Michael Koetter, 2008. "The stability of bank efficiency rankings when risk preferences and objectives are different," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(2), pages 115-135.
    72. Hou, Xiaohui & Wang, Qing & Zhang, Qi, 2014. "Market structure, risk taking, and the efficiency of Chinese commercial banks," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 75-88.
    73. A. P. Lerner, 1934. "The Concept of Monopoly and the Measurement of Monopoly Power," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 1(3), pages 157-175.
    74. Noman, Abu Hanifa Md. & Gee, Chan Sok & Isa, Che Ruhana, 2018. "Does bank regulation matter on the relationship between competition and financial stability? Evidence from Southeast Asian countries," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 144-161.
    75. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    76. Battese, G E & Coelli, T J, 1995. "A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 325-332.
    77. Sealey, Calvin W, Jr & Lindley, James T, 1977. "Inputs, Outputs, and a Theory of Production and Cost at Depository Financial Institutions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1251-1266, September.
    78. Salma Louati & Younes Boujelbene, 2015. "Banks’ stability-efficiency within dual banking system: a stochastic frontier analysis," International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 8(4), pages 472-490, November.
    79. Jin Q Jeon & Kwang Kyu Lim, 2013. "Bank Competition and Financial Stability : A Comparative Study of Mutual Savings Banks and Commercial Banks in Korea," Working Papers 2013-18, Economic Research Institute, Bank of Korea.
    80. Maudos, Joaquin & de Guevara, Juan Fernandez, 2007. "The cost of market power in banking: Social welfare loss vs. cost inefficiency," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 2103-2125, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Rakan Fuad Aldomy & Chan Kok Thim & Nguyen Thi Phuong Lan & Mariati Binti Norhashim, 2020. "Bank Concentration and Financial Risk in Jordan," Montenegrin Journal of Economics, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research (ELIT), vol. 16(3), pages 31-44.
    2. Alves, André Bernardo & Wanke, Peter & Antunes, Jorge & Chen, Zhongfei, 2020. "Endogenous network efficiency, macroeconomy, and competition: Evidence from the Portuguese banking industry," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C).
    3. Zouaoui, Haykel & Zoghlami, Feten, 2020. "On the income diversification and bank market power nexus in the MENA countries: Evidence from a GMM panel-VAR approach," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C).

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecofin:v:50:y:2019:i:c:s1062940818305473. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/620163 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.