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Too Many to Fail? Evidence of Regulatory Forbearance When the Banking Sector Is Weak


  • Craig O. Brown
  • I. Serdar Dinç


This article studies bank failures in twenty-one emerging market countries in the 1990s. By using a competing risk hazard model for bank survival, we show that a government is less likely to take over or close a failing bank if the banking system is weak. This Too-Many-to-Fail effect is robust to controlling for macroeconomic factors, financial crises, the Too-Big-to-Fail effect, domestic financial development, and concerns due to systemic risk and information spillovers. The article also shows that the Too-Many-to-Fail effect is stronger for larger banks and when there is a large government budget deficit. The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Society for Financial Studies. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Craig O. Brown & I. Serdar Dinç, 2011. "Too Many to Fail? Evidence of Regulatory Forbearance When the Banking Sector Is Weak," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(4), pages 1378-1405.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:24:y::i:4:p:1378-1405

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