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The effects of individual characteristics, teacher practice, and school organizational factors on students' bullying: A multilevel analysis of public middle schools in Taiwan


  • Wei, Hsi-Sheng
  • Williams, James Herbert
  • Chen, Ji-Kang
  • Chang, Hsiu-Yu


This study investigated the effects of individual characteristics (gender, depression, and delinquency), teacher practice (support and maltreatment), and school organizational factors (school size and pupil-teacher ratio) on adolescents' verbal and physical bullying behaviors. A random sample of 1172 7th-9th grade students from 12 public middle schools in Taichung City, Taiwan was selected for this study. A self-report questionnaire survey was administered. The results showed that during the previous semester, 38.7% of the students had ever bullied other students physically while 53.0% had verbally bullied others. Hierarchical linear modeling was employed to conduct a two-level analysis. Individual characteristics including gender, depression, and involvement in delinquent behaviors were found to significantly contribute to both verbal and physical bullying. Teacher's support and maltreatment of students were also associated with the two types of bullying. School size and pupil-teacher ratio, on the other hand, did not significantly contribute to bullying behaviors. Implications were discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Wei, Hsi-Sheng & Williams, James Herbert & Chen, Ji-Kang & Chang, Hsiu-Yu, 2010. "The effects of individual characteristics, teacher practice, and school organizational factors on students' bullying: A multilevel analysis of public middle schools in Taiwan," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 137-143, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:cysrev:v:32:y:2010:i:1:p:137-143

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. J. S. Ferris & E. G. West, 2004. "Economies of scale, school violence and the optimal size of schools," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(15), pages 1677-1684.
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    3. repec:lan:wpaper:1092 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Bradley, Steve & Taylor, Jim, 1998. "The Effect of School Size on Exam Performance in Secondary Schools," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 60(3), pages 291-324, August.
    5. Leung, Ambrose & Ferris, J. Stephen, 2008. "School size and youth violence," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 318-333, February.
    6. Richard Barnett & J. Colin Glass & Roger Snowdon & Karl Stringer, 2002. "Size, Performance and Effectiveness: Cost-Constrained Measures of Best-Practice Performance and Secondary-School Size," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(3), pages 291-311.
    7. repec:lan:wpaper:1015 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Robert Crosnoe & Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson & Glen H. Elder, 2004. "School Size and the Interpersonal Side of Education: An Examination of Race/Ethnicity and Organizational Context," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 85(5), pages 1259-1274, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Türküm, Ayse Sibel, 2011. "Social supports preferred by the teachers when facing school violence," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 644-650, May.
    2. Chung, Jae Young & Sun, Mi Suk & Kim, Hyun Ju, 2018. "What makes bullies and victims in Korean elementary schools?," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 132-139.
    3. Hong, Jun Sung & Cho, Hyunkag & Allen-Meares, Paula & Espelage, Dorothy L., 2011. "The social ecology of the Columbine High School shootings," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 861-868, June.
    4. Emmanuel O. Acquah & Michael L. Wilson & David T. Doku, 2014. "Patterns and Correlates for Bullying among Young Adolescents in Ghana," Social Sciences, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(4), pages 1-14, October.
    5. Rezapour, Maysam & Khanjani, Narges & Mirzai, Moghadameh, 2019. "Exploring associations between school environment and bullying in Iran: Multilevel contextual effects modeling," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 54-63.


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