IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

A holistic resilience framework development for rural power systems in emerging economies


  • Mazur, Christoph
  • Hoegerle, Yannick
  • Brucoli, Maria
  • van Dam, Koen
  • Guo, Miao
  • Markides, Christos N.
  • Shah, Nilay


Infrastructure and services within urban areas of developed countries have established reliable definitions of resilience and its dependence on various factors as an important pathway for achieving sustainability in these energy systems. However, the assessment, design, building and maintenance of power systems situated in rural areas in emerging economies present further difficulties because there is no a clear framework for such circumstances. Aiming to address this issue, this paper combines different visions of energy-related resilience both in general and under rural conditions in order to provide a robust practical framework for local and international stakeholders to derive the right actions in the rural context of emerging economies. An in-depth review is implemented to recompile information of resilience in general, in energy systems and in rural areas in particular, and a number of existing frameworks is also consulted. In order to acknowledge the particular circumstances and identify the important factors influencing the resilience of rural electrification in emerging economies, a holistic rural power system resilience framework is developed and presented. This consists of twenty-one indicators for technical resilience, eight indicators for social resilience, and thirteen indicators for economic resilience. This framework can be used by system owners and operators, policy makers, NGOs and communities to ensure the longevity of power systems. This work also paves the way for the creation of appropriate and effective resilience standards specifically targeted for application in these regions - aiming to achieve the delivery of global and local sustainability goals.

Suggested Citation

  • Mazur, Christoph & Hoegerle, Yannick & Brucoli, Maria & van Dam, Koen & Guo, Miao & Markides, Christos N. & Shah, Nilay, 2019. "A holistic resilience framework development for rural power systems in emerging economies," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 235(C), pages 219-232.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:235:y:2019:i:c:p:219-232
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.10.129

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Brent, Alan Colin & Rogers, David E., 2010. "Renewable rural electrification: Sustainability assessment of mini-hybrid off-grid technological systems in the African context," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 257-265.
    2. T. Rossetto & N. Peiris & A. Pomonis & S. Wilkinson & D. Re & R. Koo & S. Gallocher, 2007. "The Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004: observations in Sri Lanka and Thailand," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 42(1), pages 105-124, July.
    3. Molyneaux, Lynette & Wagner, Liam & Froome, Craig & Foster, John, 2012. "Resilience and electricity systems: A comparative analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 188-201.
    4. Valentine, Scott Victor, 2011. "Emerging symbiosis: Renewable energy and energy security," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(9), pages 4572-4578.
    5. Robert B. Barsky & Lutz Kilian, 2004. "Oil and the Macroeconomy Since the 1970s," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(4), pages 115-134, Fall.
    6. Yadoo, Annabel & Cruickshank, Heather, 2010. "The value of cooperatives in rural electrification," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 2941-2947, June.
    7. R. Kinney & P. Crucitti & R. Albert & V. Latora, 2005. "Modeling cascading failures in the North American power grid," The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer;EDP Sciences, vol. 46(1), pages 101-107, July.
    8. Winzer, Christian, 2012. "Conceptualizing energy security," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 36-48.
    9. Mainali, Brijesh & Silveira, Semida, 2011. "Financing off-grid rural electrification: Country case Nepal," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 2194-2201.
    10. Arghandeh, Reza & von Meier, Alexandra & Mehrmanesh, Laura & Mili, Lamine, 2016. "On the definition of cyber-physical resilience in power systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 1060-1069.
    11. Urmee, Tania & Harries, David & Schlapfer, August, 2009. "Issues related to rural electrification using renewable energy in developing countries of Asia and Pacific," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 354-357.
    12. Nguyen, Khanh Q., 2007. "Alternatives to grid extension for rural electrification: Decentralized renewable energy technologies in Vietnam," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 2579-2589, April.
    13. Chaurey, Akanksha & Ranganathan, Malini & Mohanty, Parimita, 2004. "Electricity access for geographically disadvantaged rural communities--technology and policy insights," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(15), pages 1693-1705, October.
    14. Kruyt, Bert & van Vuuren, D.P. & de Vries, H.J.M. & Groenenberg, H., 2009. "Indicators for energy security," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 2166-2181, June.
    15. Kanagawa, Makoto & Nakata, Toshihiko, 2008. "Assessment of access to electricity and the socio-economic impacts in rural areas of developing countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 2016-2029, June.
    16. O'Brien, Geoff & Hope, Alex, 2010. "Localism and energy: Negotiating approaches to embedding resilience in energy systems," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(12), pages 7550-7558, December.
    17. Kaygusuz, Kamil, 2012. "Energy for sustainable development: A case of developing countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 1116-1126.
    18. Andy Pike & Stuart Dawley & John Tomaney, 2010. "Resilience, adaptation and adaptability," Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, Cambridge Political Economy Society, vol. 3(1), pages 59-70.
    19. Winkler, Harald & Simões, André Felipe & Rovere, Emilio Lèbre la & Alam, Mozaharul & Rahman, Atiq & Mwakasonda, Stanford, 2011. "Access and Affordability of Electricity in Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 1037-1050, June.
    20. Hughes, Larry, 2015. "The effects of event occurrence and duration on resilience and adaptation in energy systems," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 443-454.
    21. Howells, M. I. & Alfstad, T. & Victor, D. G. & Goldstein, G. & Remme, U., 2005. "A model of household energy services in a low-income rural African village," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(14), pages 1833-1851, September.
    22. Madubansi, M. & Shackleton, C.M., 2006. "Changing energy profiles and consumption patterns following electrification in five rural villages, South Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(18), pages 4081-4092, December.
    23. Tang, Christopher S., 2006. "Perspectives in supply chain risk management," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(2), pages 451-488, October.
    24. Haanyika, Charles Moonga, 2006. "Rural electrification policy and institutional linkages," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(17), pages 2977-2993, November.
    25. Ouyang, Min, 2014. "Review on modeling and simulation of interdependent critical infrastructure systems," Reliability Engineering and System Safety, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 43-60.
    26. Strbac, Goran, 2008. "Demand side management: Benefits and challenges," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 4419-4426, December.
    27. PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry PHD Chamber, 2016. "India-Pakistan Bilateral Trade: Past, Present and Future," Working Papers id:11376, eSocialSciences.
    28. Markard, Jochen & Raven, Rob & Truffer, Bernhard, 2012. "Sustainability transitions: An emerging field of research and its prospects," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(6), pages 955-967.
    29. Geels, Frank W., 2002. "Technological transitions as evolutionary reconfiguration processes: a multi-level perspective and a case-study," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(8-9), pages 1257-1274, December.
    30. Moslehi, Salim & Reddy, T. Agami, 2018. "Sustainability of integrated energy systems: A performance-based resilience assessment methodology," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 228(C), pages 487-498.
    31. Smith, Thomas B., 2004. "Electricity theft: a comparative analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(18), pages 2067-2076, December.
    32. Ellabban, Omar & Abu-Rub, Haitham & Blaabjerg, Frede, 2014. "Renewable energy resources: Current status, future prospects and their enabling technology," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 748-764.
    33. Fankhauser, Samuel & Tepic, Sladjana, 2007. "Can poor consumers pay for energy and water? An affordability analysis for transition countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 1038-1049, February.
    34. ., 2013. "The emergence of strategic partnerships," Chapters, in: Strategic Public Private Partnerships, chapter 1, pages 3-19, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    35. Klibi, Walid & Martel, Alain & Guitouni, Adel, 2010. "The design of robust value-creating supply chain networks: A critical review," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 203(2), pages 283-293, June.
    36. Davis, Mark, 1998. "Rural household energy consumption : The effects of access to electricity--evidence from South Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 207-217, February.
    37. Fikret Berkes, 2007. "Understanding uncertainty and reducing vulnerability: lessons from resilience thinking," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 41(2), pages 283-295, May.
    38. Zhou, Yutian & Panteli, Mathaios & Moreno, Rodrigo & Mancarella, Pierluigi, 2018. "System-level assessment of reliability and resilience provision from microgrids," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 230(C), pages 374-392.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Ray, Manojit & Chakraborty, Basab, 2019. "Impact of evolving technology on collaborative energy access scaling," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 13-27.
    2. Ortega-Arriaga, P. & Babacan, O. & Nelson, J. & Gambhir, A., 2021. "Grid versus off-grid electricity access options: A review on the economic and environmental impacts," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 143(C).
    3. Perera, A.T.D. & Hong, Tianzhen, 2023. "Vulnerability and resilience of urban energy ecosystems to extreme climate events: A systematic review and perspectives," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 173(C).
    4. Xiaoping Zhou & Xiaotian Li & Xiaokun Gu, 2023. "How Does Urban-Rural Capital Flow Affect Rural Reconstruction near Metropolitan Areas? Evidence from Shanghai, China," Land, MDPI, vol. 12(3), pages 1-16, March.
    5. Jing Tan & Li Peng & Shili Guo, 2020. "Measuring Household Resilience in Hazard-Prone Mountain Areas: A Capacity-Based Approach," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 152(3), pages 1153-1176, December.
    6. Jie Yu & Jiquan Zhang & Miaolei Zhou & Weiying Cai, 2023. "Impact of COVID-19 on the Comprehensive Resilience of Rural Areas—A Case Study of Jilin Province of China," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(4), pages 1-14, February.
    7. Mujjuni, F. & Betts, T. & To, L.S. & Blanchard, R.E., 2021. "Resilience a means to development: A resilience assessment framework and a catalogue of indicators," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 152(C).
    8. Justyna Chodkowska-Miszczuk & Maria Kola-Bezka & Agata Lewandowska & Stanislav Martinát, 2021. "Local Communities’ Energy Literacy as a Way to Rural Resilience—An Insight from Inner Peripheries," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(9), pages 1-18, April.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Sharifi, Ayyoob & Yamagata, Yoshiki, 2016. "Principles and criteria for assessing urban energy resilience: A literature review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 1654-1677.
    2. Trotter, Philipp A. & McManus, Marcelle C. & Maconachie, Roy, 2017. "Electricity planning and implementation in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 1189-1209.
    3. Javadi, F.S. & Rismanchi, B. & Sarraf, M. & Afshar, O. & Saidur, R. & Ping, H.W. & Rahim, N.A., 2013. "Global policy of rural electrification," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 402-416.
    4. Torero, Maximo, 2014. "The Impact of Rural Electrification," MPRA Paper 61425, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Das, Laya & Munikoti, Sai & Natarajan, Balasubramaniam & Srinivasan, Babji, 2020. "Measuring smart grid resilience: Methods, challenges and opportunities," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 130(C).
    6. Sanz-Hernández, Alexia, 2021. "Privately owned forests and woodlands in Spain: Changing resilience strategies towards a forest-based bioeconomy," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 100(C).
    7. Maximiliane SIEVERT & Jorg PETERS, 2017. "The Impact of Rural Electrification Challenges and Ways Forward," Working Paper 2f9349f5-6cb3-424d-9bc2-a, Agence française de développement.
    8. Williams, Nathaniel J. & Jaramillo, Paulina & Taneja, Jay & Ustun, Taha Selim, 2015. "Enabling private sector investment in microgrid-based rural electrification in developing countries: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 1268-1281.
    9. Månsson, André & Johansson, Bengt & Nilsson, Lars J., 2014. "Assessing energy security: An overview of commonly used methodologies," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 1-14.
    10. Ziyi Wang & Zengqiao Chen & Cuiping Ma & Ronald Wennersten & Qie Sun, 2022. "Nationwide Evaluation of Urban Energy System Resilience in China Using a Comprehensive Index Method," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(4), pages 1-36, February.
    11. Jasiūnas, Justinas & Lund, Peter D. & Mikkola, Jani, 2021. "Energy system resilience – A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 150(C).
    12. Relva, Stefania Gomes & Silva, Vinícius Oliveira da & Gimenes, André Luiz Veiga & Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales & Ashworth, Peta & Peyerl, Drielli, 2021. "Enhancing developing countries’ transition to a low-carbon electricity sector," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 220(C).
    13. Mandelli, Stefano & Barbieri, Jacopo & Mereu, Riccardo & Colombo, Emanuela, 2016. "Off-grid systems for rural electrification in developing countries: Definitions, classification and a comprehensive literature review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 1621-1646.
    14. Ahlborg, Helene & Hammar, Linus, 2014. "Drivers and barriers to rural electrification in Tanzania and Mozambique – Grid-extension, off-grid, and renewable energy technologies," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 117-124.
    15. Mujjuni, F. & Betts, T. & To, L.S. & Blanchard, R.E., 2021. "Resilience a means to development: A resilience assessment framework and a catalogue of indicators," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 152(C).
    16. Walker, Sara Louise & Hope, Alex & Bentley, Edward, 2014. "Modelling steady state performance of a local electricity distribution system under UK 2050 carbon pathway scenarios," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 604-621.
    17. Mertzanis, Charilaos, 2018. "Institutions, development and energy constraints," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 142(C), pages 962-982.
    18. Laura Del-Río-Carazo & Emiliano Acquila-Natale & Santiago Iglesias-Pradas & Ángel Hernández-García, 2022. "Sustainable Rural Electrification Project Management: An Analysis of Three Case Studies," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(3), pages 1-21, February.
    19. Nelson, James & Johnson, Nathan G. & Fahy, Kelsey & Hansen, Timothy A., 2020. "Statistical development of microgrid resilience during islanding operations," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 279(C).
    20. Dumisani Chirambo, 2014. "The Climate Finance and Energy Investment Dilemma in Africa," Journal of Developing Societies, , vol. 30(4), pages 415-440, December.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:235:y:2019:i:c:p:219-232. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.