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Citations for "Financial Constraints and Investment: Methodological Issues and International Evidence"

by Schiantarelli, Fabio

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  1. repec:hal:cesptp:halshs-00144415 is not listed on IDEAS
  2. Chatelain, Jean-Bernard & Teurlai, Jean-Christophe, 2001. "Pitfalls in investment Euler equations," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 159-179, April.
  3. Anna Bottasso, 1996. "Firms’ Financial Structure And Real Decisions: A Critical Survey Of The Empirical Literature," CERIS Working Paper 199623, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO).
  4. Ferrando, Annalisa & Marchica, Maria-Teresa & Mura, Roberto, 2014. "Financial flexibility across the euro area and the UK," Working Paper Series 1630, European Central Bank.
  5. Engel, Dirk & Middendorf, Torge, 2009. "Investment, internal funds and public banking in Germany," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(11), pages 2132-2139, November.
  6. Leonardo Becchetti & Annalisa Castelli & Iftekhar Hasan, 2010. "Investment–cash flow sensitivities, credit rationing and financing constraints in small and medium-sized firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(4), pages 467-497, November.
  7. Alessandra Guariglia & Xiaoxuan Liu & Lina Song, . "Internal Finance and Growth: Microeconometric Evidence on Chinese Firms," Discussion Papers 09/11, University of Nottingham, Centre for Finance, Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM).
  8. Marie Diron & Maria Cruz Manzano & Thomas Westermann, 2005. "Forecasting aggregate investment in the euro area: do indicators of financial conditions help?," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Investigating the relationship between the financial and real economy, volume 22, pages 206-27 Bank for International Settlements.
  9. Minetti, Raoul & Zhu, Susan Chun, 2011. "Credit constraints and firm export: Microeconomic evidence from Italy," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 109-125, March.
  10. Stoneman, Paul & Canepa, Alessandra, 2002. "Financial Constraints on Innovation: A European Cross Country Study," EIFC - Technology and Finance Working Papers 11, United Nations University, Institute for New Technologies.
  11. Sarmistha Pal, 2005. "Do External Funds Yield Lower Returns? Recent Evidence From East Asian Economies," Development and Comp Systems 0512021, EconWPA.
  12. Goerke, Laszlo, 1996. "Taxes on Payroll, Revenues and Profits in Three Models of Collective Bargaining," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 43(5), pages 549-65, November.
  13. Eckhard Hein, 2005. "Interest, debt and capital accumulation - a Kaleckian approach," IMK Working Paper 05-2005, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.
  14. Arturo Galindo & Fabio Schiantarelli, 2002. "Credit Constraints in Latin America: An Overview of the Micro Evidence," IDB Publications 6498, Inter-American Development Bank.
  15. Harrison, Ann E. & Love, Inessa & McMillan, Margaret S., 2004. "Global capital flows and financing constraints," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 269-301, October.
  16. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00119408 is not listed on IDEAS
  17. Love, Inessa & Zicchino, Lea, 2002. "Financial development and dynamic investment behavior : evidence from panel vector autoregression," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2913, The World Bank.
  18. Christopher F. Baum & Mustafa Caglayan & Neslihan Ozkan, 2004. "The second moments matter: The response of bank lending behavior to macroeconomic uncertainty," Discussion Papers in Economics 04/13, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
  19. Jérôme Héricourt & Sandra Poncet, 2007. "FDI and credit constraints : firm level evidence in China," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne bla07009, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
  20. World Bank & Asian Development Bank, 2007. "Reducing Investment Climate Constraints to Higher Growth : Lao People's Democratic Republic Private Sector and Investment Climate Assessment," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7591, The World Bank.
  21. Arturo Galindo & Alejandro Micco, 2005. "Bank Credit to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: The Role of Creditor Protection," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 347, Central Bank of Chile.
  22. Pedro Elosegui & Paula Español & Demian Panigo & Juan Sotes Paladino, 2006. "Methodological Alternatives for the Analysis of Financial Constraints in Argentina," BCRA Working Paper Series 200602, Central Bank of Argentina, Economic Research Department.
  23. Martin Kukuk & Manfred Stadler, 2000. "Financing Constraints and the Timing of Innovations in the German Services Sector," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0893, Econometric Society.
  24. Ricardo Bebczuk & Arturo Galindo, 2011. "Corporate Leverage, the Cost of Capital,and the Financial Crisis in Latin America," Department of Economics, Working Papers 085, Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
  25. World Bank, 2007. "Cape Verde Investment Climate Assessment," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12305, The World Bank.
  26. Pellegrino, Gabriele & Savona, Maria, 2013. "Is money all? Financing versus knowledge and demand constraints to innovation," MERIT Working Papers 029, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  27. Yan, Isabel K. & Chan, Kenneth S. & Dang, Vinh Q.T., 2011. "Financial liberalization and financing constraints: some evidence from panel data of listed Chinese firms," MPRA Paper 35227, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  28. Pedro Elosegui & Paula Español & Demian Panigo & Emilio Blanco, 2007. "The Asymmetrical Impact of Restrictions to Financing in Argentina. Comparison by Sector, Size and Origin of Ownership (1995-2003)," Ensayos Económicos, Central Bank of Argentina, Economic Research Department, vol. 1(48), pages 73-107, July - Se.
  29. Maria Angelica Arbelaez & Juan Jose Echavarria, 2002. "Credit, Financial Liberalization and Manufacturing Investment in Colombia," Research Department Publications 3145, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  30. Gianni La Cava, 2005. "Financial Constraints, the User Cost of Capital and Corporate Investment in Australia," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp2005-12, Reserve Bank of Australia.
  31. Alexander Monge-Naranjo & Luis J. Hall, 2003. "Access to Credit and the Effect of Credit Constraints on Costa Rican Manufacturing Firms," Research Department Publications 3164, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  32. Bean, Charles & Larsen, Jens D. J. & Nikolov, Kalin, 2002. "Financial frictions and the monetary transmission mechanism: theory, evidence and policy implications," Working Paper Series 0113, European Central Bank.
  33. Hall, B. & Mairesse, J. & Mulkay, B., 1998. "Firm-Level Investment in France and the United States: An Exploration of What We Have Learned in Twenty Years," Economics Papers 143, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  34. Martijn Boermans & Daan Willebrands, 2012. "Financial constraints, risk taking and firm performance: Recent evidence from microfinance clients in Tanzania," DNB Working Papers 358, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  35. repec:hal:cesptp:halshs-00119408 is not listed on IDEAS
  36. Quader, Manzur & Taylor, Karl, 2014. "Corporate Efficiency, Credit Status and Investment," IZA Discussion Papers 8285, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  37. Ignacio Hernando & André Tiomo, 2002. "Financial constraints and investment in France and Spain: a comparison using firm level data," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0214, Banco de Espa�a.
  38. World Bank, 2007. "Lao PDR - Private Sector and Investment Climate Assessment : Reducing Investment Climate Constraints to Higher Growth," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7707, The World Bank.
  39. Marco Grazzi & Nadia Jacoby & Tania Treibich, 2013. "Dynamics of Investment and Firm Performance: Comparative evidence from manufacturing industries," LEM Papers Series 2013/06, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
  40. Maclennan, Duncan & Muellbauer, John & Stephens, Mark, 1999. "Asymmetries in Housing and Financial Market Institutions and EMU," CEPR Discussion Papers 2062, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  41. Colombo, E., 1999. "The capital structure of Hungarian firms," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 9903, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
  42. Love, Inessa & Zicchino, Lea, 2006. "Financial development and dynamic investment behavior: Evidence from panel VAR," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 190-210, May.
  43. Hottenrott, Hanna & Peters, Bettina, 2011. "Innovative capability and financing constraints for innovation: More money, more innovation?," ZEW Discussion Papers 09-081 [rev.], ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  44. Bagella, M. & Becchetti, L. & Caggese, A., 2001. "Financial constraints on investments: A three-pillar approach," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 219-254, June.
  45. Hillier, G.H., 1995. "The union of best critical regions: complete classes, p-values, and model curvature," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 9503, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
  46. Schündeln, Matthias, 2005. "Modeling Firm Dynamics to Identify the Cost of Financing Constraints in Ghanaian Manufacturing," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Kiel 2005 29, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
  47. Anna Bottasso & Marzio Galeotti & Alessandro Sembenelli, 1997. "The Impact Of Financing Constraints On Markups: Theory And Evidence From Italian Firm Level Data," CERIS Working Paper 199706, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO).
  48. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00321632 is not listed on IDEAS
  49. Crisóstomo, Vicente Lima & López-Iturriaga, Félix Javier & Vallelado González, Eleuterio, 2014. "Nonfinancial companies as large shareholders alleviate financial constraints of Brazilian firm," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 62-77.
  50. Alex Coad, 2007. "Neoclassical vs evolutionary theories of financial constraints : critique and prospectus," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne r07008, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
  51. Audretsch, David B & Weigand, Jürgen G, 1999. "Does Science Make a Difference? Investment, Finance and Corporate Governance in German Industries," CEPR Discussion Papers 2056, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  52. Ulph, A., 1994. "Strategic environmental policy, international trade and the single European market (forthcoming in environmental policy with economic and political integration, Edward Elgar)," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 9403, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
  53. Eckhard Hein, 2004. "Interest rate, debt, distribution and capital accumulation in a post-Kaleckian model," Macroeconomics 0412005, EconWPA.
  54. Alfredo Bobillo & Juan Rodriguez Sanz & Fernando Tejerina Gaite, 2009. "Investment Decisions, Liquidity, and Institutional Activism: An International Study," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 87(1), pages 25-40, April.
  55. repec:hal:cesptp:halshs-00112522 is not listed on IDEAS
  56. Chan, Kenneth S. & Dang, Vinh Q.T. & Yan, Isabel K.M., 2012. "Financial reform and financing constraints: Some evidence from listed Chinese firms," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 482-497.
  57. Hobdari, Bersant & Jones, Derek C. & Mygind, Niels, 2009. "Capital investment and determinants of financial constraints in Estonia," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 344-359, December.
  58. Andrew P. Dickerson & Heather D. Gibson & Euclid Tsakalotos, 1999. "Is Attack the Best form of Defence? A Competing Risks Analysis of Acquisition Activity in the UK," Studies in Economics 9907, Department of Economics, University of Kent.
  59. Marialuz Moreno Badia & Veerle Slootmaekers, 2008. "The Missing Link Between Financial Constraints and Productivity," LICOS Discussion Papers 20808, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  60. Marcello SPANO', 2003. "Productivity shocks and hedging: theory and evidence," Departmental Working Papers 2003-26, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
  61. John Rand, 2007. "‘Credit Constraints and Determinants of the Cost of Capital in Vietnamese Manufacturing’," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 1-13, June.
  62. Robert Carpenter & Laura Rondi, 2000. "Italian Corporate Governance, Investment, and Finance," Empirica, Springer, vol. 27(4), pages 365-388, December.
  63. Yan, Isabel K. & Chan, Kenneth S. & Dang, Vinh Q.T., 2011. "Financial liberalization, financing constraints and political connection: evidence from Chinese firms," MPRA Paper 35223, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  64. Chiara Coluzzi & Annalisa Ferrando & Carmen Martínez-Carrascal, 2009. "Financing obstacles and growth: An analysis for euro area non-financial corporations," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0836, Banco de Espa�a.
  65. Koo, Jaewoon & Maeng, Kyunghee, 2005. "The effect of financial liberalization on firms' investments in Korea," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 281-297, April.
  66. Chan, Kenneth S. & Dang, Vinh Q.T. & Yan, Isabel K.M., 2012. "Chinese firms’ political connection, ownership, and financing constraints," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 164-167.
  67. World Bank, 2007. "An Assessment of the Investment Climate in Botswana, Volume 2. Detailed Results and Econometric Analysis," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7747, The World Bank.
  68. P.G. Hare, 1997. "Investment, Growth and Industrial Renewal in the Transition Economies," CERT Discussion Papers 9701, Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation, Heriot Watt University.
  69. Eckhard Hein, 2009. "A (Post-) Keynesian perspective on "financialisation"," IMK Studies 01-2009, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.
  70. Jean-Christophe Teurlai, 2003. "Investissement corporel et coût du financement externe : identification de différents régimes et rôle du crédit-bail," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 157(1), pages 51-70.
  71. Caballero, Ricardo J., 1999. "Aggregate investment," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 12, pages 813-862 Elsevier.
  72. Audretsch, David B. & Weigand, Jurgen, 2005. "Do knowledge conditions make a difference?: Investment, finance and ownership in German industries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 595-613, June.
  73. Clarke, George R.G., 2005. "Beyond tariffs and quotas : why don't African manufacturers export more?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3617, The World Bank.
  74. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00144621 is not listed on IDEAS
  75. Øivind Anti Nilsen & Fabio Schiantarelli, 2003. "Zeros and Lumps in Investment: Empirical Evidence on Irreversibilities and Nonconvexities," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 1021-1037, November.
  76. Niklas Potrafke, 2010. "Does government ideology influence deregulation of product markets? Empirical evidence from OECD countries," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 143(1), pages 135-155, April.
  77. Defne Mutluer Kurul & Koray Alper, 2010. "Kuresel Kriz ve Kredi Egilimleri," CBT Research Notes in Economics 1002, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
  78. Carlo Altomonte & Tommaso Aquilante & Gianmarco Ottaviano, . "The triggers of competitiveness: The EFIGE cross-country report," Blueprints, Bruegel, number 738, June.
  79. Bayraktar, Nihal & Fofack, Hippolyte, 2007. "Specification of investment functions in Sub-Saharan Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4171, The World Bank.
  80. Vlieghe, Gertjan W, 2007. "Imperfect credit markets: implications for monetary policy," MPRA Paper 12957, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  81. W.A. Bruinshoofd, 2003. "Corporate Investment and Financing Constraints: Connections with Cash Management," WO Research Memoranda (discontinued) 734, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  82. Herrendorf, B. & Valentinyi, A. & Waldmann, R., 1998. "Ruling out indeterminacy: the role of heterogeneity," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 9803, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
  83. Andrea Vaona, 2010. "On the gravitation and convergence of industry profit rates in Denmark, Finland, Italy and the US," Working Papers 02/2010, University of Verona, Department of Economics.
  84. Jorge M.Streb & Javier Bolzico & Pablo Druck & Alejandro Henke & José Rutman & Walter Sosa Escudero, 2002. "Bank relationships: effect on the availability and marginal cost of credit for firms in Argentina," CEMA Working Papers: Serie Documentos de Trabajo. 216, Universidad del CEMA.
  85. Nucci, Francesco & Pozzolo, Alberto F., 2001. "Investment and the exchange rate: An analysis with firm-level panel data," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 259-283, February.
  86. Bayraktar, Nihal & Sakellaris, Plutarchos & Vermeulen, Philip, 2005. "Real versus financial frictions to capital investment," Working Paper Series 0566, European Central Bank.
  87. Dirk Engel & Joel Stiebale, 2009. "Private Equity, Investment and Financial Constraints – Firm-Level Evidence for France and the United Kingdom," Ruhr Economic Papers 0126, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
  88. Carlo Cambini & Laura Rondi, 2010. "Regulatory Independence and Political Interference: Evidence from EU Mixed-Ownership Utilities’ Investment and Debt," Working Papers 2010.69, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  89. Arturo Galindo & Alejandro Micco, 2005. "Crédito bancario a pequeñas y medianas empresas: el papel de la protección al acreedor," Research Department Publications 4400, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  90. Arturo Galindo & Fabio Schiantarelli, 2002. "Limitaciones crediticias en América Latina: panorámica general de los elementos de juicio al nivel micro," Research Department Publications 4306, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  91. Tomasz Mickiewicz & Kate Bishop & Urmas Varblane, 2004. "Financial Constraints in Investment - Foreign Versus Domestic Firms. Panel Data Results From Estonia, 1995-1999," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2004-648, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  92. Clarke, George R.G. & Cull, Robert & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad, 2006. "Foreign bank participation and access to credit across firms in developing countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 774-795, December.
  93. Yan, Isabel K. & Chan, Kenneth S. & Dang, Vinh Q.T., 2011. "Chinese Firms’ Political Connection, Ownership, and Financing Constraints," MPRA Paper 35221, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  94. Coluzzi, Chiara & Ferrando, Annalisa & Martinez-Carrascal, Carmen, 2009. "Financing obstacles and growth: an analysis for euro area non-financial corporations," Working Paper Series 0997, European Central Bank.
  95. Laura Rondi & Alessandro Sembenelli, 1997. "Investment, Financial Factors and Business Fluctuations," CERIS Working Paper 199717, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO).
  96. Gonzalo Castaneda, 2002. "Internal Capital Markets and Financing Choices of Mexican Firms Before and During the Financial Paralysis of 1995-2000," Research Department Publications 3146, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  97. Elisabetta Bertero & Laura Rondi, 1997. "Does debt discipline state-owned firms? Evidence from a panel of Italian firms," CERIS Working Paper 199711, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO).
  98. Malcomson, J.M., 1997. "Contracts, hold-up and labor markets," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 9703, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
  99. Sandra Leitner & Robert Stehrer, 2012. "Access to Finance and Composition of Funding during the Crisis: A firm-level analysis for Latin American countries," wiiw Working Papers 78, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  100. Marcela Eslava & Alessandro Maffioli & Marcela Meléndez Arjona, 2012. "Second-tier Government Banks and Access to Credit: Micro-Evidence from Colombia," IDB Publications 64578, Inter-American Development Bank.
  101. Cafer Kaplan & Erdal Ozmen & Cihan Yalcin, 2006. "The Determinants and Implications of Financial Asset Holdings of Non-Financial Firms in Turkey : An Emprical Investigation," Working Papers 0606, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
  102. Steinbuks, J., 2008. "Financial constraints and firms' investment: results of a natural experiment measuring firm response to power interruption," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0844, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  103. Blackburn, K. & Hung, V.T.Y., 1993. "A theory of growth, financial development and trade," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 9303, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
  104. Andrea Vaona, 2010. "On the gravitation and convergence of industry incremental rates of return in OECD countries," Working Papers 03/2010, University of Verona, Department of Economics.
  105. Jose Maria Fanelli & Ricardo N. Bebczuk & Juan J. Pradelli, 2002. "Determinants and Consequences of Financial Constraints Facing Firms in Argentina," Research Department Publications 3147, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  106. Stéphane Blancard & Jean-Philippe Boussemart & Walter Briec & Kristiaan Kerstens, 2005. "Short- and Long-Run Credit Constraints in French Agriculture: A Directional Distance Function Framework Using Expenditure-Constrained Profit Functions," Working Papers 2005-ECO-02, IESEG School of Management.
  107. Espanol, Paula, 2006. "Why exporters can be financially constrained in a recently liberalised economy? A puzzle based on Argentinean firms during the 1990s," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Berlin 2006 7, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
  108. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00112522 is not listed on IDEAS
  109. Héricourt, Jérôme & Poncet, Sandra, 2009. "FDI and credit constraints: Firm-level evidence from China," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 1-21, March.
  110. Kataria, Karin & Curtiss, Jarmila & Balmann, Alfons, 2012. "Drivers of Agricultural Physical Capital Development: Theoretical Framework and Hypotheses," Factor Markets Working Papers 122, Centre for European Policy Studies.
  111. Inessa Love & Nataliya Mylenko, 2003. "Credit reporting and financing constraints," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3142, The World Bank.
  112. M. Shahe Emran & M. Imam Alam & Forhad Shilpi, 2003. "After the "License Raj": Economic Liberalization and Aggregate Private Investment in India," Development and Comp Systems 0305002, EconWPA, revised 25 Aug 2003.
  113. Jaewoon Koo & Kyunghee Maeng, 2006. "Foreign ownership and investment: evidence from Korea," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(20), pages 2405-2414.