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No bank, one bank, several banks: does it matter for investment?

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  • Alexander Karaivanov

    ()
    (Simon Fraser University)

  • Sonia Ruano

    ()
    (Banco de España)

  • Jesús Saurina

    ()
    (Banco de España)

  • Robert Townsend

    ()
    (MIT)

Abstract

This paper examines whether financial constraints affect firms’ investment decisions for older (larger) firms. We compare a group of unbanked firms to firms that rely on formal financing. Specifically, we combine data from the Spanish Mercantile Registry and the Bank of Spain Credit Registry (CIR) to classify firms according to their number of banking relations: one, several, or none. Our empirical strategy combines two approaches based on a common theoretical model. First, using a standard Euler equation adjustment cost approach to investment, we find that single-banked firms in our sample are most likely to exhibit cash flow sensitivity while unbanked firms are not. Second, using structural maximum likelihood estimation, we find that unbanked firms have a financial structure which is close to credit subject to moral hazard with unobserved effort, whereas single-banked firms have a financial structure which is more limited, as in an exogenously imposed traditional debt model. Firms in the unbanked category do not rely on bonds, equity, or formal financial markets, but rather on other firms in a financial or family-tied group (with either pyramidal or informal structure). We are among the first to document the importance of such groups in a European country. We control for reverse causality by treating bank relationships as endogenous and/or by appropriate stratifications of the sample.

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File URL: http://www.bde.es/f/webbde/SES/Secciones/Publicaciones/PublicacionesSeriadas/DocumentosTrabajo/10/Fic/dt1003e.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Banco de Espa�a in its series Banco de Espa�a Working Papers with number 1003.

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Length: 59 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bde:wpaper:1003

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Keywords: financial constraints; bank lending; investment Euler equations; moral hazard; structural estimation and testing;

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References

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  1. Chirinko, Robert S. & Elston, Julie Ann, 2006. "Finance, control and profitability: the influence of German banks," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 69-88, January.
  2. Santiago Carbó Valverde & Francisco Rodríguez-Fernández & Gregory F. Udell, 2008. "Bank lending, financing constraints and SME investment," Working Paper Series WP-08-04, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  3. Elston, Julie Ann, 1996. "Investment, Liquidity Constraints and Bank Relationships: Evidence from German Manufacturing Firms," CEPR Discussion Papers 1329, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Wolfgang HÄRDLE & J. MARRON & L. YANG, 1996. "Discussion," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 1996,65, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
  5. Luigi Guiso & Raoul Minetti, 2010. "The Structure of Multiple Credit Relationships: Evidence from U.S. Firms," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 42(6), pages 1037-1071, 09.
  6. Marianne Bertrand & Antoinette Schoar, 2006. "The Role of Family in Family Firms," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(2), pages 73-96, Spring.
  7. Sraer, David & Thesmar, David, 2004. "Performance and Behaviour of Family Firms: Evidence from the French Stock Market," CEPR Discussion Papers 4520, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Stephen Bond & Julie Ann Elston & Jacques Mairesse & Beno�t Mulkay, 2003. "Financial Factors and Investment in Belgium, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom: A Comparison Using Company Panel Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(1), pages 153-165, February.
  9. Degryse, Hans & Van Cayseele, Patrick, 2000. "Relationship Lending within a Bank-Based System: Evidence from European Small Business Data," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 90-109, January.
  10. Caroline Fohlin, 1998. "Relationship Banking, Liquidity, and Investment in the German Industrialization," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(5), pages 1737-1758, October.
  11. Robert M. Townsend & Kenichi Ueda, 2010. "Welfare Gains From Financial Liberalization," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 51(3), pages 553-597, 08.
  12. Russell Cooper & Joao Ejarque, 2003. "Financial Frictions and Investment: Requiem in Q," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 6(4), pages 710-728, October.
  13. Robert M. Townsend & Alexander Karaivanov, 2008. "Enterprise Dynamics and Finance: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Markets Models," 2008 Meeting Papers 846, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  14. Alonso-Borrego, C., 1994. "Estimating Dynamic Investment Models with Financial Constraints," Papers 9418, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Y Financieros-.
  15. repec:wop:humbsf:1996-65 is not listed on IDEAS
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Cited by:
  1. Yishay Yafeh & Kenichi Ueda & Stijn Claessens, 2010. "Financial Frictions, Investment, and Institutions," IMF Working Papers 10/231, International Monetary Fund.
  2. Alexander Karaivanov & Robert M. Townsend, 2013. "Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Regimes," NBER Working Papers 19617, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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