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The Structure of Multiple Credit Relationships: Evidence from US Firms

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  • Luigi Guiso
  • Raoul Minetti

Abstract

When firms borrow from multiple concentrated creditors such as banks they appear to differentiate their allocation of borrowing. In this paper, we put forward hypotheses for this borrowing pattern based on incomplete contract theories and test them using a sample of small U.S. firms. We find that firms with more valuable, more redeployable, and more homogeneous assets differentiate borrowing more sharply across their concentrated creditors. We also find that borrowing differentiation is inversely related to restructuring costs and positively related to firms’ informational transparency. This evidence supports the predictions of incomplete contract theories: the structure of credit relationships appears to be used as a device to discipline creditors and entrepreneurs, especially during corporate reorganizations.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by European University Institute in its series Economics Working Papers with number ECO2007/46.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:eui:euiwps:eco2007/46

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Keywords: Credit Relationships; Multiple Creditors; Borrowing Allocation;

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References

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  1. Carletti, Elena & Cerasi, Vittoria & Daltung, Sonja, 2004. "Multiple-Bank Lending: Diversification and Free-Riding in Monitoring," Working Paper Series 165, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  2. Elsas, Ralf, 2005. "Empirical determinants of relationship lending," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 32-57, January.
  3. Guiso, Luigi & Minetti, Raoul, 2004. "Multiple Creditors and Information Rights: Theory and Evidence from US Firms," CEPR Discussion Papers 4278, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Oliver Hart, 2001. "Financial Contracting," NBER Working Papers 8285, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Ivo Welch & Arturo Bris, 2001. "The Optimal Concentration of Creditors," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm248, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Apr 2004.
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  16. Carletti, Elena, 2004. "The structure of bank relationships, endogenous monitoring, and loan rates," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 58-86, January.
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  18. Yosha Oved, 1995. "Information Disclosure Costs and the Choice of Financing Source," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 3-20, January.
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  22. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
  23. von Rheinbaben, Joachim & Ruckes, Martin, 2004. "The number and the closeness of bank relationships," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1597-1615, July.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Cerasi, Vittoria & Daltung, Sonja, 2004. "Multiple-bank lending: Diversification and free-riding in monitoring," CFS Working Paper Series 2004/18, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
  2. Luis Araujo & Raoul Minetti, 2012. "Credit Crunches, Asset Prices and Technological Change," Working Papers CASMEF 1204, Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, LUISS Guido Carli.
  3. Ongena, Steven & Tümer-Alkan, Günseli & Westernhagen, Natalja v., 2012. "Creditor concentration: An empirical investigation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 830-847.
  4. Giorgia Barboni & Tania Treibich, 2013. "First Time Lucky? An Experiment on Single versus Multiple Bank Lending Relationships," GREDEG Working Papers 2013-28, Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Economie, Gestion (GREDEG CNRS), University of Nice Sophia Antipolis.
  5. Giovanni Ferri & Pierluigi Murro & Zeno Rotondi, 2010. "Do Firm-Bank `Odd Couples' Exacerbate Credit Rationing?," series 0031, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Metodi Matematici - Università di Bari, revised Jul 2010.
  6. Giannetti, Caterina, 2012. "Relationship lending and firm innovativeness," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 762-781.
  7. Sonia Ruano & Robert M. Townsend & Jesus Saurina & Alexander Karaivanov, 2010. "No Bank, One Bank, Several Banks: Does It Matter for Investment?," 2010 Meeting Papers 669, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  8. Vigneron, Ludovic & Hajj Chehade, Hiba, 2013. "Structuration du pool bancaire de la PME : une revue de la littérature
    [Structuring SMEs' banks relationships: a review]
    ," MPRA Paper 50498, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Giorgia Barboni & Tania Treibich, 2012. "(Just) first time lucky ?the impact of single versus multiple bank lending relationships on firms and banks'behavior," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2012-26, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
  10. Giacinto Micucci & Paola Rossi, 2010. "Debt restructuring and the role of lending technologies," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 763, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  11. Leandro D’Aurizio & Tommaso Oliviero & Livio Romano, 2012. "Family firms and the agency cost of debt: The role of soft information during a crisis," Economics Working Papers ECO2012/22, European University Institute.
  12. Leandro D’Aurizio & Tommaso Oliviero & Livio Romano, 2014. "Family Firms, Soft Information and Bank Lending in a Financial Crisis," CSEF Working Papers 357, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
  13. Dong Xiang & Andrew C. Worthington & Helen Higgs, 2011. "Firm-level determinants and impacts of finance-seeking behaviour and outcomes for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Australia," Discussion Papers in Finance finance:201115, Griffith University, Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics.

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