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Internal Capital Markets and Financing Choices of Mexican Firms Before and During the Financial Paralysis of 1995-2000

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  • Gonzalo Castaneda

Abstract

This paper shows that, contrary to conventional wisdom, once the Mexican economy moved from financial liberalization to financial paralysis in 1995, liquidity constraints were relaxed for many large and financially healthy firms listed on the Mexican Securities Market. In the latter period, only those firms with a banking tie observe, on average, a dependence on cash stock to finance their investment projects. Econometric results are derived from dynamic panel data models estimated with the Generalized Method of Moments, where level and difference equations are combined into a system. The econometric evidence is consistent with the real growth of the Mexican economy during the years 1996-2000, which took place in a context of a collapsed banking system and the paralysis of other domestic forms of external financing. This paper also provides evidence supporting the hypothesis that firms’ membership in a network and firms’ linkage to a bank produced weaker financial constraints before the banking crisis. However, additional research is needed to formally test the importance of the different sources of financing since 1995; suppliers’ credit, foreign funding and internal capital markets are viable candidates for further study. Finally, the paper provides an intuitive rationalization of the Mexican paradox based on the business groups’ structure and their internal capital markets. It is argued that under a macroeconomic setting characterized by disarray in the domestic financial system, firms affiliated with business groups have more incentives to act coordinately rather than performing as autonomous profit centers. Consequently, in this new scenario, corporate headquarters are more interested in removing financial bottlenecks than in exerting market pressure on their divisions. In this environment, groups are capable of reallocating financial resources away from booming, export-oriented affiliates—the most likely to have access to foreign capital markets—and into cash-constrained firms within the same group. In other words, according to this theory, it is suggested that the presence of internal capital markets worked as a financial buffer that helped sustain economic growth.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 3146.

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Date of creation: Aug 2002
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:3146

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  1. Anne Krueger & Aaron Tornell, 1999. "The Role of Bank Restructuring in Recovering from Crises: Mexico 1995-98," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1872, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  2. Francisco Gallego & Norman Loayza, 2000. "Financial Structure in Chile: Macroeconomic Developments and Microeconomic Effects," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 75, Central Bank of Chile.
  3. Gertner, Robert H & Scharfstein, David S & Stein, Jeremy C, 1994. "Internal versus External Capital Markets," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(4), pages 1211-30, November.
  4. Steven Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 1987. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," NBER Working Papers 2387, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Inessa Love, 2003. "Financial Development and Financing Constraints: International Evidence from the Structural Investment Model," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(3), pages 765-791, July.
  6. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
  7. R Blundell & Steven Bond, . "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  8. David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 1997. "The Dark Side of Internal Capital Markets: Divisional Rent-Seeking and Inefficient Investment," NBER Working Papers 5969, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-54, July.
  11. Robert S. Chirinko & Huntley Schaller, 1993. "Why does liquidity matter in investment equations?," Research Working Paper 93-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
  12. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1997. "Trade Credit: Theories and Evidence," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(3), pages 661-91.
  13. Owen Lamont, 1996. "Cash Flow and Investment: Evidence from Internal Capital Markets," NBER Working Papers 5499, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Harris, John R & Schiantarelli, Fabio & Siregar, Miranda G, 1994. "The Effect of Financial Liberalization on the Capital Structure and Investment Decisions of Indonesian Manufacturing Establishments," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 8(1), pages 17-47, January.
  15. Khanna, Tarun, 2000. "Business groups and social welfare in emerging markets: Existing evidence and unanswered questions," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(4-6), pages 748-761, May.
  16. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
  17. Simon Gilchrist & Charles Himmelberg, 1999. "Investment: Fundamentals and Finance," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1998, volume 13, pages 223-274 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Lang, Larry H P & Stulz, Rene M, 1994. "Tobin's q, Corporate Diversification, and Firm Performance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(6), pages 1248-80, December.
  19. Biais, Bruno & Gollier, Christian, 1997. "Trade Credit and Credit Rationing," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 903-37.
  20. Schiantarelli, Fabio, 1996. "Financial Constraints and Investment: Methodological Issues and International Evidence," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 12(2), pages 70-89, Summer.
  21. Huntley Schaller, 1993. "Asymmetric Information, Liquidity Constraints and Canadian Investment," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 26(3), pages 552-74, August.
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Cited by:
  1. Arturo Galindo & Fabio Schiantarelli, 2002. "Credit Constraints in Latin America: An Overview of the Micro Evidence," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 537, Boston College Department of Economics.
  2. Arturo Galindo & Fabio Schiantarelli, 2002. "Limitaciones crediticias en América Latina: panorámica general de los elementos de juicio al nivel micro," Research Department Publications 4306, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.

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