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Bildungsressourcen, Bildungsinstitutionen und Bildungsqualität: Makroökonomische Relevanz und mikroökonomische Evidenz

  • Gundlach, Erich
  • Wößmann, Ludger

Nach dem sogenannten PISA-Schock wird insbesondere in Deutschland intensiv diskutiert, wie die Qualität der schulische Ausbildung verbessert werden kann. Dabei herrscht die Überzeugung vor, dass die Qualität der schulischen Ausbildung eine wichtige Determinante des langfristigen makroökonomischen Produktivitätswachstums ist, die zumindest teilweise mit einer Variation der staatlichen Bildungsausgaben gesteuert werden kann. Investitionen in Humankapital gelten folgerichtig ganz allgemein als wirtschaftspolitischer Schlüssel für den Erhalt der internationalen Wettbewerbsfähigkeit einer zunehmend wissensbasierten Volkswirtschaft. Darüber hinaus wird auch diskutiert, ob nicht eher institutionelle Reformen statt weiterer Ausgabensteigerungen im Schulsektor nötig sind, um die Qualität der schulischen Ausbildung zu verbessern. Im Gegensatz zur öffentlichen Diskussion ist man in der makroökonomischen empirischen Forschung in verschiedenen neueren Studien häufig zu dem Ergebnis gekommen, dass andere Faktoren als das Humankapital für die großen internationalen Unterschiede in der Produktivität des Faktors Arbeit verantwortlich sein müssen. Danach wäre von wirtschaftspolitischen Maßnahmen im Bildungssektor, wie etwa einer verbesserten finanziellen Ausstattung oder gar einer grundlegenden institutionellen Reform, kein wesentlicher Beitrag zum langfristigen Produktivitätswachstum der Volkswirtschaft zu erwarten. Die aktuelle Debatte zu PISA und den Folgen wäre dann lediglich für eine effiziente Gestaltung des Bildungssektors von Bedeutung, aber nicht darüber hinaus. Als Ausgangspunkt für unseren Beitrag versuchen wir deshalb zunächst, den aktuellen Stand der internationalen empirischen Forschung zur makroökonomischen Rolle des Humankapitals nachzuzeichnen. In der makroökonomischen empirischen Forschung wird Humankapital im Wesentlichen anhand des durchschnittlichen schulischen Ausbildungsstandes der Arbeitskräfte erfasst. Nicht berücksichtigt wird dabei in der Regel, dass sich die Qualität der schulischen Ausbildung von Land zu Land zum Teil erheblich unterscheidet, was nicht erst seit PISA bekannt ist. Von daher gesehen ist es kein unbedingt überraschendes Ergebnis, dass ein rein quantitatives Konzept des Humankapitals nur wenig zu einer statistischen Aufklärung der großen internationalen Einkommensunterschiede beitragen kann.

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Paper provided by Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW) in its series Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy with number 3311.

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Date of creation: 2004
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:ifwkie:3311
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